Chapter 17 & 19

How does weather and climate differ?
Weather – Events occurring now; climate – weather that occurs year long
List the items found in the atmosphere along with its percentage.
Nitrogen- 78%, Oxygen- 21%, other gases- 2%
Explain the difference between primary pollutants and secondary pollutants. Give examples of each.
Primary pollutants that enter the atmosphere from a visible source, secondary pollutant – pollutants that enter the atmosphere through other methods
Where is ozone found? What is its purpose?
Ozone is in the stratosphere – purpose is to lock in heat
What happens to pressure and temperature as you increase in altitude ?
Pressure and temperature decreases
Explain the differences between rotation and revolution.
Rotation – spinning on it axis ( day and night ) and revolution – revolving around a body (365.25 days)
List the layers of the atmosphere in order from the earth’s surface upward.
Explain the differences between solstice and equinox. List the dates for the spring and fall equinox as well as the summer and winter solstice.
Solstice – winter (shorter day and longer night),summer (longer day and shorter night), equinox – day and night are equal in length (fall and spring)
Differentiate between the three ways heat is transferred.
Condensation, Radiation, Convection
What happens to solar radiation ?
Solar radiation – 50% is abosrded on earth, 20% is absorbed in clouds, 30% is reflected off clouds
Explain the difference between reflection and scattering.
Reflection – rays bouncing off clouds, scattering – rays are moving in all directions
List the ways temperature can vary on earth.
Land heats up pick quick and cools quickly, water heats up slowly and cools slowly, as you move up a mountain temperatures cool off, as you move up altitude temperatures cool down, clouds help lock in the temperatures at night and reflect off radiation during the day
How do temperatures vary from land to sea ?
Lands heat up quick and cools down quickly, water heats up slowly and cools slowly
What is albedo and how does it change from day to night ?
Clouds help lock in the temperature at night and reflect off radiation during the day
How does altitude affect temperatures ?
As you move up in altitude temperature cool down
Explain air pressure. What unit do we measure pressure ?
Air pressure in a force exerted in all directions,millibars
What is barometer ? list the two types.
Tool measuring air pressure, mercury and aneroid
How does wind form ?
Sun and pressure differences
Wind move from a ____ to ____ pressure systems.
high to low
Describe an isobar. What happens if they are closely spaced together? Far apart?
Isobars are lines of equal pressure, closely spaced lines are low pressure and widely spaced lines are high pressure
Describe a high and low pressure system. Include weather conditions too.
High pressure system – good weather (anti-cyclone moving clockwise),low pressure system – stormy weather (cyclone-clockwise)
What direction does the Coriolis effect spin in the northern hemisphere ?
How does friction affect wind ?
slows wind down
What direction does the jet stream travel in the northern hemisphere ?
west to east
Describe the movement of cyclones and anticyclones.
in mountain areas
Describe the movement of trade winds, westerlies and polar easterlies.
cyclones move counterclockwise, anti-cyclones move clockwise
Explain the differences between land and sea breezes. How are they different in the day as to the night ?
trade winds move east to west, westerlies – move to west to east, polar easterlies move east to west
What instrument is used to determine the direction of the wind ?
land breezes occur at night where wind moves from the land to sea, sea breezes occur during the day where wind moves from the sea to land
How do you classify the direction of the wind ?
wine vane
what instrument is used to measure the speed of wind ?
by the direction it came from
Describe the difference between El Nino and La Nino