Chapter-2: Information Management in ATMOverviewof ATMIn the modern world with the continuously growingintensity of air traffic flow the information is to be delivered timely andaccurately. Today’s Air TrafficManagement (ATM) system comprises a wide variety of applications. These applications were developed forspecific purposes and exist separately of each other. Each of them has its own information systemsin the air traffic control centre, airport operator, airlines andmeteorological. Each of these interfaces is custom designed, developed,managed, and maintained individually and locally at a significant cost.
That is why the current ATM system is complexand information exchange is ineffective. One of the major weaknesses of currentsystem is considered to be the limited interconnectivity of services andsystems. Moreover, the limited datasharing and bad interoperability of the systems all contribute to airspace capacitynot being optimally used.Majorstakeholders of ATM system at HIAL airportØ Airnavigation service provider(ANSPØ Airportoperation control centre(AOCC)/GMRØ AirlinesØ Meteorologicalservice provider (MET) Airnavigation service provider (ANSP)Airports Authority of India (AAI) is the Air NavigationService Provider (ANSP). Main components• FDPS• SDPS• AMSS• FDD• CWP• IOP FDPS information:The Flight Data ProcessingSystem (FDPS) provides the processing of flight plan data and other relatedinformation to support air traffic controllers during the planning and progressphases of flights, in accordance with the referenced ICAO PANS-RAC 4444 rules.
The main source of information to theFDPS is the AFTN messages received from the AMSS. Examples of these messagesare Flight Plans, Delay messages, Change messages, Departure messages, Arrivalmessages, Cancellation messages, Co-ordination messages etc.The other source of information tothe FDPS is the input data entered by the authorized operator through the FDP clients.
The FDPS consists of extensive data baseof static information like Airroutes, Reporting points, Aerodromes, SID?s, STAR?s, Co-ordinationPoints, Air sectors, Air zones etc. This internal static data base is usedfor processing of the dynamicinformation received by the FDPS from external sources. The processed dynamic data iscontinuously updated and presented tothe controller workpositions. MESSAGEHANDLINGThe Message Handling function deals with the exchange of messages with external, GMR, airlinesand ATS units and meteorological massages received from meteorologicalinformation provider.
It permits to automaticallyreceive, store, process, extract, deliver for displaying and transmit inreal-time.Ø ATS messagesin ICAO and ADEXPformat,Ø AFTNmessages,Ø Notificationand co-ordination messages AIDC Example: IOP FDPS system connected thought IOP server isthe interface with externalagencies (ex: GMR) to provide them ATS information like ATA (Actual Time of Arrival), ATD (Actual Time of Departure),TMO (Ten Miles Out) etc.The Interoperability Gateway (IOP) is themean supporting Air Traffic Management, Airport operator, and Airline Operatorsto work in a Collaborative Decision Making context. The interoperability isguaranteed by means of the flow of information that IOP receives anddistributes among the different users.
The data that IOP receives and distributes upon each revision are real-time updated soto allow all actors involvedin aircraft/flight management to dispose of the same informationand facilitate their real-time collaborative decision-making. Communication between IOP and AO (Airport Operator)shall be on TCP socket where IOP will be server and AO will be client.SurveillanceinformationSurveillanceinformation received from Primary and Secondary radar, MLAT, ADS-B and SMR fromdifferent sensor related to flights position and w and send this informationafter processed to the controller workposition to provide situational awareness to the controller for safe andefficient conducting of flight movement .
The correlated information will sendto the airport operator (GMR) as TMO message, ATA, ATD messages etc throughInteroperability system (IOP) on dedicated line of the point to point method Airportoperation Control centre (AOCC)Maincomponents of AOCCa) UFISb) AODBc) AirportSlot Allocation Systemd) BaggageHandling Systeme) FlightInformation systemf) Visualguidance docking systemg) Airportresource Management systemObjectiveof AOCC1) Ensure safety, orderly, efficientand secured operations at the airport.2) Meet customer expectation through high airport service quality (ASQ).3) Optimum utilization of resources.
AOCCoperationsAirportOperations Control Centre (AOCC) is a centralised airport operating system thathas been integrated all IT systems across the airport campus and stakeholdersinto a single, robust structure as middleware. The system made use of real-timedata from the aviation stakeholders i,e Air navigation service provider(eg.IOP), airlines allowing for more proactive and informed decision making.Aircraftoperators try to overcome lack of information flow within the current airtraffic network by using fleet management systems. These systems aim to achievethe best possible overview concerning one particular fleet. Airport operatorreflects only a fraction of the entire network and its fleet management systemslack information from important partners in the network, e.g. air trafficcontrol, Stand & Gate management at their own hub.
Fleet management systemsgive the best possible overview of a fleet network using a reduced set ofinformation. The achieved picture of an AO’s network (daily operations) is onlya part of the entire network. Currently, this portion of the entire network isnot communicated to other partners and most other partners do not believe thatthis information could be of interest to themUnlikeairlines, Air services tries to obtain a view of the complete ATM network inorder to identify bottlenecks and to calculate the resulting, necessary regulations.
Air services bases the ATFM slot allocation on predicted air traffic based onfiled flight plans and updates from airborne traffic. The efficiency of theslot allocation process depends largely on the quality of the trafficprediction, which in turn is highly influenced by the quality of the flightplan data. An FPL gives only a raw picture of a flight, because the EstimatedOff-Block Time (EOBT) and route can only be considered as provisional. AirlinesSystemsFunctionAirlines arethe most visible and important customers of the airport.
Airlines are a companythat provides air traffic services for travelling passengers and freight.Airlines utilize aircraft to supply these services and may form partnershipwith other airlines for code share agreements. Airlines need accurate andtimely information provided by air navigation service provider, airportoperator and meteorological information domains. AirlinesInformation exchange needsinternallywith other airlines,the ANSPs, the airports,the passenger and travel agenciesandairline Information characterization with some proprietary itemstandardizedInformation CharacteristicsØ Aviation information data exchange(AIDX) is XMLmassage standard to exchange informationbetween airport and airlinesØ Flight plan through web to inform air navigationservice providerØ Get the weather information from meteorologicaldepartment. Drawback o Information exchangeØ Flow of information is not always guaranteedØ A Flight plan submitted in different locations may notreach all intended recipientsØ Information is not always up-to-date in all locationsØ Information exchange too often based on:ü point-to-pointmessage protocolsü Proprietary or non standard mechanismsØ Information is not shared and when shared not in atimely mannerØ ATMand airline/airport information may not be connected (e.g.
aircraft status) Meteorological informationOverview and functionsThe objective of anaviation meteorological service is to contribute towards the safety, regularityand efficiency air transportation by the provisions of timely and accurateweather information. It will be apparent that aircraft must be able to accessweather information when planning their flight. The main elements that affectoperation of aircraft are wind direction speed (crosswind on runways, headwindwhile inflight) ceiling and visibility (when landing and takingoff). Theseelements that may also affect to airport operators and air traffic controllersobtain as much meteorological information as important.
The first collectmeteorological data. This is done hourly (on the hour, or more frequently ifconditions change significantly), by HIAL weather observation station. There isalso automated weather observation radar at Hyderabad that can collect and thatdata send to FDPS through AFTN on IP. The collection of data requiresspecialized instruments located in a protected compound. This compound islocated on the aerodrome, in an area where it is not affected by the heat andblast from aircraft engines, or other undesirable effects.
The following data can becollected manually by qualified observers, or automatically transmitted by theinstruments to the weatheroffice:Visibility,height of the ceiling and description of clouds, air temperature and dew point,wind direction and speed, atmospheric pressure and Type and severity ofprecipitation, obstructions to visibility such as fog. Once collected, data areorganised in a standard format developed by ICAO. In light of the large amountof data to be transmitted, codes are used to shorten transmission times and toeliminate language differences. You can recognise these observation messages bythe term METAR (regular hourly observations), or SPECI (forspecialreports).Observations are transmitted through a dedicated communicationnetwork and this allows easy and immediate access to the latest weatherinformation. Air navigation service provider, Airport operator and airlines areaccessing this network.
SUMMARYThis chapter describes details of informationsources and functions and information exchange between the differentstakeholders, air navigation service provider, airport operator, airlines andmeteorological service provider .Each of these interfaces is custom designed,developed, managed, and maintained individually and locally at a significantcost. Each domain contributes their information services in the air trafficmanagement for safe, efficient handing of air traffic from strategic plan totactical manner in aviation communication network.