Chapter-2: not being optimally used. Major stakeholders of

Chapter-2: Information Management in ATM

Overview
of ATM

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In the modern world with the continuously growing
intensity of air traffic flow the information is to be delivered timely and
accurately.  Today’s Air Traffic
Management (ATM) system comprises a wide variety of applications.  These applications were developed for
specific purposes and exist separately of each other.  Each of them has its own information systems
in the air traffic control centre, airport operator, airlines and
meteorological. Each of these interfaces is custom designed, developed,
managed, and maintained individually and locally at a significant cost.  That is why the current ATM system is complex
and information exchange is ineffective. One of the major weaknesses of current
system is considered to be the limited interconnectivity of services and
systems.  Moreover, the limited data
sharing and bad interoperability of the systems all contribute to airspace capacity
not being optimally used.

Major
stakeholders of ATM system at HIAL airport

Ø 
Air
navigation service provider(ANSP

Ø 
Airport
operation control centre(AOCC)/GMR

Ø 
Airlines

Ø 
Meteorological
service provider (MET)

 

Air
navigation service provider (ANSP)

Airports Authority of India (AAI) is the Air Navigation
Service Provider (ANSP).

 Main components

•      
FDPS

•      
SDPS

•      
AMSS

•      
FDD

•      
CWP

•      
IOP

 

FDPS information:

The Flight Data Processing
System (FDPS) provides the processing of flight plan data and other related
information to support air traffic controllers during the planning and progress
phases of flights, in accordance with the referenced ICAO PANS-RAC 4444 rules.

The main source of information to the
FDPS is the AFTN messages received from the AMSS. Examples of these messages
are Flight Plans, Delay messages, Change messages, Departure messages, Arrival
messages, Cancellation messages, Co-ordination messages etc.

The other source of information to
the FDPS is the input data entered by the authorized operator through the FDP clients. The FDPS consists of extensive data base
of static information like Air
routes, Reporting points, Aerodromes, SID?s, STAR?s, Co-ordination
Points, Air sectors, Air zones etc. This internal static data base is used
for processing of the dynamic
information received by the FDPS from external sources. The processed dynamic data is
continuously updated and presented to
the controller work
positions.

 

    
 MESSAGEHANDLING

The Message Handling function deals with the exchange of messages with external, GMR, airlines
and ATS units and meteorological massages received from meteorological
information provider. It permits to automatically
receive, store, process, extract, deliver for displaying and transmit inreal-time.

Ø 
ATS messages
in ICAO and ADEXPformat,

Ø 
AFTNmessages,

Ø 
Notification
and co-ordination messages AIDC

 Example: IOP

      FDPS system connected thought IOP server is
the interface with external
agencies (ex: GMR) to provide them ATS information like ATA (Actual Time of Arrival), ATD (Actual Time of Departure),
TMO (Ten Miles Out) etc.

The Interoperability Gateway (IOP) is the
mean supporting Air Traffic Management, Airport operator, and Airline Operators
to work in a Collaborative Decision Making context. The interoperability is
guaranteed by means of the flow of information that IOP receives and
distributes among the different users. The data that IOP receives and distributes upon each revision are real-time updated soto allow all actors involved
in aircraft/flight management to dispose of the same information
and facilitate their real-time collaborative decision-making. Communication between IOP and AO (Airport Operator)
shall be on TCP socket where IOP will be server and AO will be client.

Surveillance
information

Surveillance
information received from Primary and Secondary radar, MLAT, ADS-B and SMR from
different sensor related to flights position and w and send this information
after processed  to the controller work
position to provide situational awareness to the controller for safe and
efficient conducting of flight movement .The correlated information will send
to the airport operator (GMR) as TMO message, ATA, ATD messages etc through
Interoperability system (IOP) on dedicated line of the point to point method

 

Airport
operation Control centre (AOCC)

Main
components of AOCC

a)     
UFIS

b)     
AODB

c)      
Airport
Slot Allocation System

d)     
Baggage
Handling System

e)     
Flight
Information system

f)      
Visual
guidance docking system

g)     
Airport
resource Management system

Objective
of AOCC

1) Ensure safety, orderly, efficient
and secured operations at the airport.

2) 
Meet customer expectation through high airport service quality (ASQ).

3) Optimum utilization of resources.

 

AOCC
operations

Airport
Operations Control Centre (AOCC) is a centralised airport operating system that
has been integrated all IT systems across the airport campus and stakeholders
into a single, robust structure as middleware. The system made use of real-time
data from the aviation stakeholders i,e Air navigation service provider
(eg.IOP), airlines allowing for more proactive and informed decision making.

Aircraft
operators try to overcome lack of information flow within the current air
traffic network by using fleet management systems. These systems aim to achieve
the best possible overview concerning one particular fleet. Airport operator
reflects only a fraction of the entire network and its fleet management systems
lack information from important partners in the network, e.g. air traffic
control, Stand & Gate management at their own hub. Fleet management systems
give the best possible overview of a fleet network using a reduced set of
information. The achieved picture of an AO’s network (daily operations) is only
a part of the entire network. Currently, this portion of the entire network is
not communicated to other partners and most other partners do not believe that
this information could be of interest to them

Unlike
airlines, Air services tries to obtain a view of the complete ATM network in
order to identify bottlenecks and to calculate the resulting, necessary regulations.
Air services bases the ATFM slot allocation on predicted air traffic based on
filed flight plans and updates from airborne traffic. The efficiency of the
slot allocation process depends largely on the quality of the traffic
prediction, which in turn is highly influenced by the quality of the flight
plan data. An FPL gives only a raw picture of a flight, because the Estimated
Off-Block Time (EOBT) and route can only be considered as provisional.

 

Airlines
Systems

Function

Airlines are
the most visible and important customers of the airport. Airlines are a company
that provides air traffic services for travelling passengers and freight.
Airlines utilize aircraft to supply these services and may form partnership
with other airlines for code share agreements. Airlines need accurate and
timely information provided by air navigation service provider, airport
operator and meteorological information domains. Airlines
Information exchange needsinternallywith other airlines,
the ANSPs, the airports,
the passenger and travel agenciesand
airline Information characterization with some proprietary item
standardized

Information Characteristics

Ø 
Aviation information data exchange(AIDX) is XML
massage  standard to exchange information
between airport and airlines

Ø 
Flight plan through web to inform air navigation
service provider

Ø 
Get the weather information from meteorological
department.

 

 Drawback o Information exchange

Ø 
Flow of information is not always guaranteed

Ø 
A Flight plan submitted in different locations may not
reach all intended recipients

Ø 
Information is not always up-to-date in all locations

Ø 
Information exchange too often based on:

ü  point-to-point
message protocols

ü 
Proprietary or non standard mechanisms

Ø 
Information is not shared and when shared not in a
timely manner

Ø  ATM
and airline/airport information may not be connected (e.g. aircraft status)

 

Meteorological information

Overview and functions

The objective of an
aviation meteorological service is to contribute towards the safety, regularity
and efficiency air transportation by the provisions of timely and accurate
weather information. It will be apparent that aircraft must be able to access
weather information when planning their flight. The main elements that affect
operation of aircraft are wind direction speed (crosswind on runways, headwind
while inflight) ceiling and visibility (when landing and takingoff). These
elements that may also affect to airport operators and air traffic controllers
obtain as much meteorological information as important.

The first collect
meteorological data. This is done hourly (on the hour, or more frequently if
conditions change significantly), by HIAL weather observation station. There is
also automated weather observation radar at Hyderabad that can collect and that
data send to FDPS through AFTN on IP. The collection of data requires
specialized instruments located in a protected compound. This compound is
located on the aerodrome, in an area where it is not affected by the heat and
blast from aircraft engines, or other undesirable effects.

The following data can be
collected manually by qualified observers, or automatically transmitted by the
instruments to the weatheroffice:

Visibility,
height of the ceiling and description of clouds, air temperature and dew point,
wind direction and speed, atmospheric pressure and Type and severity of
precipitation, obstructions to visibility such as fog. Once collected, data are
organised in a standard format developed by ICAO. In light of the large amount
of data to be transmitted, codes are used to shorten transmission times and to
eliminate language differences. You can recognise these observation messages by
the term METAR (regular hourly observations), or SPECI (for
specialreports).Observations are transmitted through a dedicated communication
network and this allows easy and immediate access to the latest weather
information. Air navigation service provider, Airport operator and airlines are
accessing this network.

 

SUMMARY

This chapter describes details of information
sources and functions and information exchange between the different
stakeholders, air navigation service provider, airport operator, airlines and
meteorological service provider .Each of these interfaces is custom designed,
developed, managed, and maintained individually and locally at a significant
cost. Each domain contributes their information services in the air traffic
management for safe, efficient handing of air traffic from strategic plan to
tactical manner in aviation communication network.