CHAPTER entire electricity production and supply value chain.



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chapter covers on the background of the study and organisational, problem
statement, research objectives, research questions, the scope of the study,
significance of the study to the organisational and other organization who
participate SL1M program, and definition of terms. The research will focus on the
importance of Trainees’ Happiness for SL1M-IBE at Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB).




Based on Bank Negara’s 2016 annual
report, the youth unemployment rate in Malaysia was estimated to have reached
10.7% in 2015, triple higher than the national unemployment rate of 3.1%(Bank Negara
Malaysia – Statutory Requirements, 2016) . Malaysia is
among regional economies with an incidence of youth unemployment in the
double-digits, despite a low overall unemployment rate. 1Malaysia Training
Scheme or Skim Latihan 1Malaysia (SL1M)
was first established by Bank Negara Malaysia in 2009 as part of its corporate
social responsibility programme before being absorbed into Economic Planning
Unit (EPU) of the Prime Minister Department, two years later to operate on a larger

It was
launched on 1 June 2011, targeting 3,738 graduates at first and the
participation of 26 Government-Linked Companies (GLCs). To date, more than 120,000
graduates have benefited and found jobs after they attended job training and
improved their communication skills at private or GLCs. Government saved over
RM2bil in cost as training and other expenses are borne by the companies (Lim, 2017).

The main objectives
of this program are to help the unemployed underprivileged graduates from the
rural and urban poor and marginalized society to increase their level of
ability, knowledge, skills and working experience. The targets of participant
of this program are graduates are unemployed who come from
low-income families or live in remote areas and who work but do not qualify for
graduation obtained.

The participants of this program will
go participate Soft-Skills Training and On-The-Job Training with participating
companies whereby to enhance their self-esteem and be exposed to the real
working environment. The timing of training is dependent on the requirements of
the Organisational but the maximum period is 12 months.

In line with this,
in 2011 TNB implemented the first phase of SL1M in the Organisational with the
participation of 342 trainees. Afterward, TNB implemented the second phase of
SL1M in 2014 with 200 trainees. In year 2017, TNB aim to train 880 trainees in




Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) is the largest
electricity utility in Malaysia. The core business of TNB is providing
electricity to the country’s businesses, homes and industries. The activities represent
the entire electricity production and supply value chain. The customers are
Ordinary Power Consumers including of residents in rural areas and Large Power
Consumer such as steel companies.

TNB is engaged in the business of the generation,
transmission, distribution and sale of electricity. The organisational operates
through three divisions: Generation Division, Transmission Division and
Distribution Division. The organisational also manages and operates a
transmission network-the National Grid. Spanning the peninsular, the grid links
TNB power stations and IPPs to the distribution network. The grid is also
interconnected to Thailand’s transmission system in the North and Singapore’s
transmission system in the South.

TNB is also involved in diversified activities linked
to the power industry. Through its subsidiaries, the organisational is in the
manufacture of transformers, high voltage switchgears and cables; the provision
of professional consultancy services; architectural, civil, electrical engineering
works and services, repair and maintenance; as well as in research and
development; property development, and management services.

In recent years, TNB have also embarked on the
sustainability agenda through efforts such as Renewable Energy and other
environmental as well as social initiatives as TNB seek to add value to all
their stakeholders. The organisation believes these activities will not only
take TNB into the future, but also continue to grow their business in the

TNB believes its employees are its most valuable
assets, and nurtures a work environment that is both challenging and rewarding
to bring out the full potential of its 34,000 strong workforce. Systematic
training programmes and career development opportunities exist side by side
with a safe and healthy work environment, attractive compensation and benefits
scheme, and work-life balance

With their 67 years of existence, TNB is Malaysia’s
leading electricity utility with a presence throughout Peninsular Malaysia,
Sabah and Labuan. The organisation have also established a name in the region,
making TNB one of the largest electricity companies in Asia as they transform
themselves into a Domestic and Regional Champion.

















In helping to bridge the gap between education and the
professional world, TNB is recruiting candidates to participate in the
SL1M-IBE, where a maximum of 12-month training program with comprehensive
classroom training and on-the-job-training in various business functions are
provided to those selected. This training scheme aimed to improve the
employability of the graduates to secure jobs at the job market.

During the programme, TNB train their participants in
few areas inclusive of soft skills, on-job-training and character building. The
modules are inclusive of communication, problem-solving, how to be value-driven
professionals and how to adopt and adapt good organisational practices.
Although they could be appointed as the permanent staff after the organisation
completed, they still gain valuable experience, skills and marketable values
that enable them to seek other opportunities in the future. To join the SL1M
training programme, the minimum qualification is a degree.

This year, TNB will provide the opportunities to 880
SL1M graduates. The duration is 6 months and they will be given RM1,500.00
per month. TNB provide 65% position for technical background (electrical, civil
and mechanical) and the rest are for non-technical for example finance,
accounts, information technology, legal, human resource and others.

on the interview with Puan Noorhanani Binti Mohdir, a Senior Manager at the
Center of Expertise of Group Human Resource Division TNB, there were attitude
problems with regards to SL1M-IBE. There were cases whereby they were less
productive, late came to the office, laid back, no urgency on the tasks given,
do not respect the seniors and many more. In a
professional workplace setting, bad attitude can affect everyone and cause
conflict among employees.






research questions are as follows:

What is the level
happiness of trainee’s SL1M-IBE at TNB?

What is the relationship
between happiness and LMX?

What is the relationship
between happiness and organisational culture?

What are the
recommendations to improve the happiness of SL1M-IBE at TNB?



study is expected to meet the following objectives:

To identify the level happiness of the trainees’SL1M-IBE

To examine the relationship of happiness and

To investigate the relationship of
happiness and organization culture

To provide recommendation to the
Management of TNB to wax improving happiness outcome for trainees’ SLIM-IBE




1.7.1     Management

study will help the management to understand more on the factors that influence
the happiness of the trainees’ SLIM-IBE. The happiness would influence them to
perform better and increase their productivity as well.

1.7.2     Other organization that involve in the SLIM programme

Malaysia, the government has introduced SL1M program to give the opportunities
to the youths who graduated from the colleges or universities. Hence, it will improve
themselves and the same time to gain experience in related field of their studies.
Due to the regression economic, the job vacancy and opportunities to get a job
is limited. This program
is part of government’s mission to produce the talent people. This study
would contribute to the other organization to understand the SL1M’s participant
requirement to enhance trainees’ happiness.


            1.7.3    Researcher




this section, a term that has been used in the research is being identified and
the definitions are explained as below:


1.9.1          Trainees’

Trainees’ happiness is a set of mind
control or belief that allows employees to maximize performance, accomplish
their prospective and goals (Jessica Pryce-Jones, 2014)


1.9.2          Leader–member
exchange (LMX)

exchange is whereby the leaders have unique social exchange relationships with
their employees and the quality of these relationships (from subordinates to
superior positions) differs between employees with the same leaders (Kimberley Breevaart, 2015).


1.9.3          Organization

The definitions of organization culture are the
interaction patterns of employees and the groups with each other’s, with
clients and shareholders (Fanxing Meng, 2016)
acknowledged and shared expectations of values, philosophies and beliefs in an
organization (Madu, 2011)




SLIM program has been introduced by the government to help the fresh graduate
improve and adapt their self to the real working environment. Besides that, if
their performance is good and at the same time have vacancies, they will absorb
as permanent staff.  The happiness at
working place is very important to the trainees whereby able to enhance their
productivity and performance. The factors can be influenced their happiness are
organization culture and LMX. As an organization who involve in SL1M program,
the performance of trainees is very important to TNB. TNB have responsible to
produce good trainees, because all the trainees who training at TNB will bring
together TNB image at after finish their training.