CHAPTER forms of stereotypy. Scientists have adjusted these

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGYVocalstereotypy is a common issue in young children with autism spectrum disorderand may significantly impede with the social conduct of those who engage in thebehavior.

Assortments of antecedent-based and consequence-based systems havebeen utilized to lessen stereotypic practices (Rapp and Vollmer, 2005). Despitethe fact that the treatment of vocal stereotypy presents remarkabledifficulties, a large portion of the interventions intended to diminish suchvocalizations have been initially created to treat other forms of stereotypy.Scientists have adjusted these techniques to manage the particularcomplications characterized by vocal stereotypy (Lanovaz, 2011). The main objectiveof this study will be to extend the research on evidence-based strategies todecrease vocal stereotypy in students diagnosed with autismspectrum disorder.DesignThe research willfollow a mixed methods model of quantitative and qualitative methods.  The purpose ofmixed method design is to be able to answer multiple questions in a singlestudy when the research is complex.

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A mixed method design will deepenunderstanding and provide a wider perception of what is being studied. Aclearer standpoint of the research study can be achieved when incorporatingmultiple methods rather than a single. It is justified through these reasons,as well as by increasing validity in a research study that includes multiplequestions.Thisdesign will be appropriate for the following research to determine the effectson vocal stereotypy using response interruption and redirection (RIRD) aimed todecrease the behavior. The independent variable will be the treatment and thedependent variable will be the behavior, or rate of vocal stereotypy. ParticipantsTheresearch for this study will take place in an early childhood special educationpreschool classroom located on an elementary school campus in SouthernCalifornia.  The school receives fundingfrom State and Federal Categorical Programs and is located in a low-incomecommunity.

  This school provideselementary education for students kindergarten to sixth grade for approximately376 students (California Department of Education, 2017).  The primary objective of the early childhoodspecial education program located on campus is to provide services to eligiblestudents, more specifically for students who reside within the school districtarea.  Therewill be 15 students in the class where the action research will be conducted.  This is a unique special education classroomin that it provides an inclusive environment for early childhood students. Studentswith special needs account for 74% of the classes’ demographics and are onIndividual Education Programs (IEP) while typical developing students from thecommunity are only 26% of the demographics. Of the 15 students in the classroom 80% are three years old and 20% fouryears old.

  The race and ethnicity of theclass is made up of 87% Hispanic and 13% other (non-Hispanic). Thestaff includes one credentialed early childhood special education teacher andthree additional paraeducators. This classroom differs from a typical preschoolclassroom because it has specialized academic instruction as in there are morevisuals, differentiated instruction, staff are highly qualified, smallerteacher child ratio, and there are accommodations and mortificationsimplemented to help students succeed. The participants used in my study willhave a diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder and exhibit symptoms of vocalstereotypy.

Therewill not be any sampling bias because the participants will be chosen solely onwhether they have autism and engage in vocal stereotypy. The sampling errorwill be relatively low due to the intentional assignment and characteristicsrequired in order to allow the sample to represent a specific population. Throughthis research, it is hoped that findings will conclude if RIRD is successfulfor treating vocal stereotypy. External validity and generalization may be lowdue to the specific characteristics of the research and participants. RIRD maybe useful for other repetitive behaviors, such as motor stereotypy, howeverevidence will support only vocal stereotypy.

Keepingthe three principles, respect for persons, beneficence, and justice, in mindwill allow the research to be designed in an ethical manner. When working withindividuals with disabilities, respect for such persons is imperative and mustbe upheld. Regardless of intellectual or cognitive abilities, each individualhas the right to choose to be involved in a research or study. Specialprotections are in place to avoid individuals with low cognitive abilities frombeing taken advantage of.

When or if the child is not capable of giving consent there must be assent of the participant and writtenconsent of the parentor legal guardian. Individuals will be assigned identification codes tomaintain confidentiality when reporting on the research.Thisstudy will help the participants to avoid engaging in vocal stereotypy in orderto exhibit appropriate and functional behaviors.

Minimal potential harm to theparticipant will be considered and the experiment will not be pursued if there isrisk of harm. Justice will allow all participants to be able to equally receivethe same outcomes. It would be unethical having prior speculation that onegroup would be harmed or that one group would greatly benefit over the other. Instruments            Each patient willparticipate in a functional analysis prior to the start of the program todetermine the influences that cause or maintain the vocal stereotypicbehaviors. A functional analysis establishes the relationship between stimuliand response. The function of the vocal stereotypy behavior will beoperationalized and determined. A direct observation tool in the form of an ABCchart will be utilized to outline details of the setting and incidences ofvocal stereotypy.

“A” signifies the antecedent, or the action or settingimmediately before the target behavior. “B” refers to behavior, or the observedconduct. “C” suggests the consequence, or what happens immediately after theobserved behavior. ABC charts provide information regarding the child’senvironment and events surrounding the target behavior.

Surveyquestionnaires will be utilized to gather information on the occurrence ofvocal stereotypy in the participants. This instrument will collect, analyze,and interpret the views of the parents, or legal guardians, on the incidences of the target behavior. Eventrecording will also be conducted by the teacher to document the frequency ofvocal stereotypic behaviors. Event recording provides information on the amountof times the student is observed engaging in the target behavior.

Procedures             All participants will be administered a functionalanalysis. Additionally, teachers will document observations of vocal stereotypybehaviors using an antecedent-behavior-consequence method. Parents of eachparticipant will complete a survey questionnaire prior to the start oftreatment.

The teacher will also gather baseline data through event recordingfrom observational periods in the classroom. During the first few sessionswhere RIRD is implemented, teachers will provide more prompts and verbalreinforcements. However, as the study continues there will be less promptingand more independent initiation from participants to discontinue vocalstereotypy.

Data collection tools, or event recording, will be developed todocument occurrence of vocal stereotypy during intervention period. After intervention,the parents will complete the same survey questionnaire to determine theirperception on present levels of vocal stereotypy. The teacher will gatherinformation on occurrence of vocal stereotypic behaviors post-treatment withand event recording method.

Data CollectionMy action researchproject intends to explore whether RIRD is effective on decreasing vocalstereotypy in young individuals with autism. To understand and document thisquestion, my data collection will explore the behaviors occurred before,during, and after intervention. When the research project begins, students willhave already been exposed to the aforementioned strategy and will have hadopportunities to experience it in their daily routines. The data collectionwill then focus on how students utilize or respond to RIRD as well as examinethe learning and growth that occurs during this research project.              Bycollecting data on RIRD results during and after, I will have a quantitative reasoningif this strategy promoted effective results. This will not only document if thestudents benefited from RIRD, but it will also help me understand the outcomesthat correlate with the students’ engagement of vocal stereotypy and itsfunction. Data collection has to take place over several months to ensurestudents have the opportunities to be exposed to the RIRD.

The qualitative datawill provide me with a better understanding of the environments and events inwhich vocal stereotypy occurs.  Data Analysis Exampleswherein levels of vocal stereotypy from event recording pre-intervention willbe higher than levels of vocal stereotypy in post-intervention will determinethat RIRD diminished engagement in vocal stereotypy. On the off chance thatlevels of vocal stereotypy will be lower in the pre-intervention results thanin the post-intervention, we will presume that the treatment did notsuccessfully decrease the rate of vocal stereotypy.

A t-test for dependentmeans will assess the difference between occurrences of vocal stereotypy atpre- and post-RIRD. A significant difference will be determined using thisstatistical method. A t-test for dependent means is the most appropriate testto analyze the data due to the dependence of post-intervention results onpre-intervention data. CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGYVocalstereotypy is a common issue in young children with autism spectrum disorderand may significantly impede with the social conduct of those who engage in thebehavior. Assortments of antecedent-based and consequence-based systems havebeen utilized to lessen stereotypic practices (Rapp and Vollmer, 2005). Despitethe fact that the treatment of vocal stereotypy presents remarkabledifficulties, a large portion of the interventions intended to diminish suchvocalizations have been initially created to treat other forms of stereotypy.Scientists have adjusted these techniques to manage the particularcomplications characterized by vocal stereotypy (Lanovaz, 2011).

The main objectiveof this study will be to extend the research on evidence-based strategies todecrease vocal stereotypy in students diagnosed with autismspectrum disorder.DesignThe research willfollow a mixed methods model of quantitative and qualitative methods.  The purpose ofmixed method design is to be able to answer multiple questions in a singlestudy when the research is complex. A mixed method design will deepenunderstanding and provide a wider perception of what is being studied.

Aclearer standpoint of the research study can be achieved when incorporatingmultiple methods rather than a single. It is justified through these reasons,as well as by increasing validity in a research study that includes multiplequestions.Thisdesign will be appropriate for the following research to determine the effectson vocal stereotypy using response interruption and redirection (RIRD) aimed todecrease the behavior. The independent variable will be the treatment and thedependent variable will be the behavior, or rate of vocal stereotypy. ParticipantsTheresearch for this study will take place in an early childhood special educationpreschool classroom located on an elementary school campus in SouthernCalifornia.  The school receives fundingfrom State and Federal Categorical Programs and is located in a low-incomecommunity.  This school provideselementary education for students kindergarten to sixth grade for approximately376 students (California Department of Education, 2017).  The primary objective of the early childhoodspecial education program located on campus is to provide services to eligiblestudents, more specifically for students who reside within the school districtarea.

  Therewill be 15 students in the class where the action research will be conducted.  This is a unique special education classroomin that it provides an inclusive environment for early childhood students. Studentswith special needs account for 74% of the classes’ demographics and are onIndividual Education Programs (IEP) while typical developing students from thecommunity are only 26% of the demographics.

 Of the 15 students in the classroom 80% are three years old and 20% fouryears old.  The race and ethnicity of theclass is made up of 87% Hispanic and 13% other (non-Hispanic). Thestaff includes one credentialed early childhood special education teacher andthree additional paraeducators.

This classroom differs from a typical preschoolclassroom because it has specialized academic instruction as in there are morevisuals, differentiated instruction, staff are highly qualified, smallerteacher child ratio, and there are accommodations and mortificationsimplemented to help students succeed. The participants used in my study willhave a diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder and exhibit symptoms of vocalstereotypy.Therewill not be any sampling bias because the participants will be chosen solely onwhether they have autism and engage in vocal stereotypy. The sampling errorwill be relatively low due to the intentional assignment and characteristicsrequired in order to allow the sample to represent a specific population.

Throughthis research, it is hoped that findings will conclude if RIRD is successfulfor treating vocal stereotypy. External validity and generalization may be lowdue to the specific characteristics of the research and participants. RIRD maybe useful for other repetitive behaviors, such as motor stereotypy, howeverevidence will support only vocal stereotypy.Keepingthe three principles, respect for persons, beneficence, and justice, in mindwill allow the research to be designed in an ethical manner.

When working withindividuals with disabilities, respect for such persons is imperative and mustbe upheld. Regardless of intellectual or cognitive abilities, each individualhas the right to choose to be involved in a research or study. Specialprotections are in place to avoid individuals with low cognitive abilities frombeing taken advantage of. When or if the child is not capable of giving consent there must be assent of the participant and writtenconsent of the parentor legal guardian.

Individuals will be assigned identification codes tomaintain confidentiality when reporting on the research.Thisstudy will help the participants to avoid engaging in vocal stereotypy in orderto exhibit appropriate and functional behaviors. Minimal potential harm to theparticipant will be considered and the experiment will not be pursued if there isrisk of harm. Justice will allow all participants to be able to equally receivethe same outcomes. It would be unethical having prior speculation that onegroup would be harmed or that one group would greatly benefit over the other. Instruments            Each patient willparticipate in a functional analysis prior to the start of the program todetermine the influences that cause or maintain the vocal stereotypicbehaviors. A functional analysis establishes the relationship between stimuliand response. The function of the vocal stereotypy behavior will beoperationalized and determined.

A direct observation tool in the form of an ABCchart will be utilized to outline details of the setting and incidences ofvocal stereotypy. “A” signifies the antecedent, or the action or settingimmediately before the target behavior. “B” refers to behavior, or the observedconduct. “C” suggests the consequence, or what happens immediately after theobserved behavior.

ABC charts provide information regarding the child’senvironment and events surrounding the target behavior. Surveyquestionnaires will be utilized to gather information on the occurrence ofvocal stereotypy in the participants. This instrument will collect, analyze,and interpret the views of the parents, or legal guardians, on the incidences of the target behavior.

Eventrecording will also be conducted by the teacher to document the frequency ofvocal stereotypic behaviors. Event recording provides information on the amountof times the student is observed engaging in the target behavior. Procedures             All participants will be administered a functionalanalysis. Additionally, teachers will document observations of vocal stereotypybehaviors using an antecedent-behavior-consequence method. Parents of eachparticipant will complete a survey questionnaire prior to the start oftreatment. The teacher will also gather baseline data through event recordingfrom observational periods in the classroom.

During the first few sessionswhere RIRD is implemented, teachers will provide more prompts and verbalreinforcements. However, as the study continues there will be less promptingand more independent initiation from participants to discontinue vocalstereotypy. Data collection tools, or event recording, will be developed todocument occurrence of vocal stereotypy during intervention period. After intervention,the parents will complete the same survey questionnaire to determine theirperception on present levels of vocal stereotypy. The teacher will gatherinformation on occurrence of vocal stereotypic behaviors post-treatment withand event recording method.Data CollectionMy action researchproject intends to explore whether RIRD is effective on decreasing vocalstereotypy in young individuals with autism. To understand and document thisquestion, my data collection will explore the behaviors occurred before,during, and after intervention. When the research project begins, students willhave already been exposed to the aforementioned strategy and will have hadopportunities to experience it in their daily routines.

The data collectionwill then focus on how students utilize or respond to RIRD as well as examinethe learning and growth that occurs during this research project.              Bycollecting data on RIRD results during and after, I will have a quantitative reasoningif this strategy promoted effective results. This will not only document if thestudents benefited from RIRD, but it will also help me understand the outcomesthat correlate with the students’ engagement of vocal stereotypy and itsfunction. Data collection has to take place over several months to ensurestudents have the opportunities to be exposed to the RIRD. The qualitative datawill provide me with a better understanding of the environments and events inwhich vocal stereotypy occurs.

 Data Analysis Exampleswherein levels of vocal stereotypy from event recording pre-intervention willbe higher than levels of vocal stereotypy in post-intervention will determinethat RIRD diminished engagement in vocal stereotypy. On the off chance thatlevels of vocal stereotypy will be lower in the pre-intervention results thanin the post-intervention, we will presume that the treatment did notsuccessfully decrease the rate of vocal stereotypy. A t-test for dependentmeans will assess the difference between occurrences of vocal stereotypy atpre- and post-RIRD. A significant difference will be determined using thisstatistical method. A t-test for dependent means is the most appropriate testto analyze the data due to the dependence of post-intervention results onpre-intervention data.