CHAPTER IINTRODUCTION ANDSTATEMENT OF PROBLEM1.0 INTRODUCTIONMany researches (Cooper et al, 2012; Dominguez et al, 2017; Ganioet al, Orer, 2014, Waterhouse et al 2010; 2009; William, 2005) were studied the effects of various types of ergogenic aids suchas music, caffeine, creatine, carnitine, amino acids, sodium bicarbonate andbeetroot juice on sport performance. These ergogenic aids served to improvevarious sport performance such as aerobic performance, anaerobic performance,weight loss, muscular power, speed and muscle strength. Music was very important throughout history to many aspectsof human life, including dancing and hunting and warfare. Music might act toincrease exercise intensity by increasing arousal such as power output andheart rate, delaying fatigue while increase exercise duration or allowingentrainment during rhythmic activities which might contribute to improving sportperformance (Foster, 2010; Karageorghis et al, 2009; Mohammadzadeh, 2008;Priest, 2004). Based on Waterhouse and Edwards (2010), fastermusic, whether because of the intrinsic tempo of the music or having increasedthe tempo artificially, enabled exercise to be performed at a greater work rateand with a greater physiological effect and more positive subjective responses,than did slower music. These effects were due to some combination ofmotivational and distracting effects which reducing the individual’s perceptionof work, fatigue and discomfort that were involved (De Bourdeaudhuij et al.,2002; Crust, 2004b; Edworthy and Waring, 2006; Nethery et al.
, 1991; Nethery, 2002; Potteigeret al., 2000; Szabo et al., 1999; Yamashita et al., 2006).Researchers had examined the use of slow music,fast music and no music (Waterhouse et al, 2009); the role of lyrics in themusic (Sanchez et al, 2014); the used of motivational music (Isik et al, 2015);the used of synchronous music (Saha, 2012) and the used of preferred music andnon-preferred music (Nakamura et al, 2010). There were also researchers whoexamined the use of music as ergogenic aid in different conditions such aslisten to music during warm-up (Chtourou et al, 2011), prior to anaerobicexercise (Sherman and Richmond, 2013) and during circuit- type exercise(Karageorghis, 2009). The result from previous studies was inconclusive andconflicting.
However various aspects of the use of music during exercise hadbeen studied. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate effect of music onheart rate, perceived exertion, core temperature, skin temperature and thermalcomfort scale for cycling performance in heat condition. According to Galloway et al (1997), theprogressive impairment in endurance performance with the increasing ambienttemperature was well-documented.
There had been many explanations about thisdeterioration in performance proposed by the researchers, including anincreased physiological burden to heat via the skin and an elevated coretemperature (Cheuvront et al, 2010). Hyperthermia and increased in braintemperature could reduce central drive to continue exercise. Therefore, theonset of fatigue will be precipitated (Nybo, 2010). Therefore, instead of using caffeine (Beaumontand James, 2017), creatine (Mendel et al, 2004) and other supplements, musicwas chosen in this study so that psychological, psychophysical and ergogenic effectsof music could reduce fatigue and prolong the endurance performance in hotcondition. 1.
1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM The purpose of thisstudy was to evaluate the effects of music on endurance performance during cyclingin the hot condition. Besides, this study was to compare the cyclingperformance of ‘with music’ group and ‘no music’ group to determine the musicaleffects such as psychophysical, psychological and ergogenic effects onparticipants’ cycling performance in the hot condition.When exercise in the hot condition, the enhancedthermoregulatory demand for skin blood flow coupled with dehydration andhyperthermia would cause a number of challenge to an individual’scardiovascular control and thus, the provision of oxygen to exercising musclesand this might cause negative effect on endurance performance (Alonso et al,2008).
There was a high risk of getting cardiovascular strain during prolongedand intense exercise such as in the 2020 Tokyo Olympic events where temperatureswould soar to 38 degrees Celsius (Bloomberg News, 2013). Numerous researchers (Arngrimssonet al., 2003; Bassett & Howley, 2000; Cheuvront et al., 2010; Gonzalez-Alonso(2003); Nybo et al.
(2001); Prampero, 2003 and Sawka et al. 1985) had reportedthat high environmental temperature significantly decreases VO2max andimpaired aerobic performance. According to Arngrimsson (2004), heat stressreduced VO2max in men and in women in proportion to theincreased in core temperature and skin temperature. The increased in skin bloodflow would affect cardiovascular function by decreasing the central bloodvolume and stroke volume and by impairing muscle blood flow (Gosolfi,2000).Therefore, the oral-to-skin temperature gradient could be an importantfactor that may influence VO2max. But there from the limited dataavailable, it is unclear whether hot condition reduces Vo2max during endurancecycling performance. Other researchers had revealed the positive effects of musicon sport performance. Karageorghis etal.
(2009, 2010, 2013) had primarily discovered three types of main musicaleffects on sport performance in the field of exercise and sport which werepsychological, psychophysical, and ergogenic. Firstly, psychological effectsconcerned on how music influenced the mood, emotion, affect, cognition andbehavior. Secondly, psychophysical effects of music were measured duringexercise, and also sometimes during sport training. Thirdly, music had an ergogeniceffect when it improved exercise performance by delaying fatigue and increasingwork capacity. In addition, numerous researchers (Lim, 2012; Nakamura,2010; Sanchez, 2013; Waterhouse, 2009) examined the effects of music tempo,music lyrics, music preference, asynchronous and synchronous music on sportperformance. Karageorghis (2009) found that music could improve enduranceperformance. Similarly, Yamamoto et al. (2003) reported that participantslistening to either slow or fast music for 20 minutes before completing themaximal exercise task, improved their power output in both conditions.
Theresearchers concluded that the slower music decreased arousal while the fastermusic elevated it. On the other hand, Bigliassi (2012) reported that listeningto music before and during exercise did not affect performance andpsychophysiological parameters during the 5km time trial. Similarly, Foster etal (2013) revealed that music has no effect on either performance or physiologyduring 10km cycling at competitive intensity.The above-mentioned research findings provided inconclusiveand conflicting evidences of the effects music on sport performance especiallyendurance performance. Thus, this study was important to examine the effects ofmusic on endurance performance in hot condition However, apparently there was no study yet that examine theeffects of music on endurance performance in hot condition. But a researcherWaterhouse et al (2009) conducted a study which was to determine the effects ofmusic tempo upon submaximal cycling performance in hotter climates. The researchers statedthat the relevant finding needed further investigation. Therefore, understoodthe further knowledge on the effect of music on physiological and psychologicalresponses in hot condition was essential towards any sport related performanceneeded to find out.
1.2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purposes of this study were to:1.2.1 Evaluate the effects of music on enduranceperformance during cycling in hot condition.1.2.2 Compare the cycling performance of’with music’ group and ‘no music’ group.
1.3 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS Basedon the statement of problem and the purpose of this study, the study focused onthe hypotheses which were expressed in the null form:Ho1 There was nosignificant difference in physiological parameters between trials. Ho2 There was nosignificant difference in Cycling Performance between trials. Ho3 There was nosignificant difference in psychological parameters between trials. Ho4 There was nosignificant difference in male physiologicalparameters in WM and NM Trial.Ho5 There was nosignificant difference in male CyclingPerformance in WM and NM Trial.Ho6 There was nosignificant difference in male psychologicalparameters in WM and NMTrial. Ho4 There was nosignificant difference in female physiologicalparameters in WM and NM Trial.
Ho5 There was nosignificant difference in female CyclingPerformance in WM and NMTrial.Ho6 There was nosignificant difference in female psychologicalparameters in WM and NMTrial. 1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDYThere was a need to increase ourunderstanding of how music could help to improve on active person’s enduranceperformance in hot condition. The finding of this study could be usedby athlete to delay fatigue in endurance training. In addition, athletes couldunderstand how to improve their training regimen which with music resulting inmore work being performed in a set amount of time.
Coaches and athletes coulduse music as ergogenic aids to train in heat acclimation. The findings also would provide usefulfeedback to the physical educator. Physical educator is the key people who wasdirectly in touch with the grass roots level in schools. Thus, the findings ofthe study could be very useful for physical educators to consider music to helpto improve student’s exercise adherence. 1.
5 DELIMITATIONS Thefollowing delimitations were placed on this study: 1.5.1 Thesubjects were 28 active individuals (male = 14, female= 14).
1.5.2 Subjectscycled 55% of Vo2max for 40 minutes which maintained 60RPM in the first 20minutes and followed by cycle as fast as possible in the last 20 minutes undertwo conditions (With Music and No music). 1.5.3 Thecycling testing protocol was adopted from Dyer (2013). 1.5.
4 According to Karageorghis (2013),the range of preferred tempi for cycle ergometer was 125-140bpm. Therefore, musictempo of 150 bpm was chosen for the ‘with music’ group because this study wasconducted in hot condition. 1.6 ASSUMPTION1.6.1 Subjectsperformed The Astrand Maximal Cycle Protocol to the best of their effort. 1.
6.2 Subjectsadhered to the guidelines of the two conditions (With music and No Music)during the test. 1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS1.7.1 WithMusic. Operationally, subjects were provided with 150bpmtempi music during experimentaltrials. 1.
7.2 NoMusic. Operationally, subjects were not provided with any music duringexperimental trials.1.7.3 Hotcondition.
Operationally, the ambient temperature was maintained at 35?C. 1.7.4 POMS-A (Profileof Mood States-Adolescents).
Operationally, described feeling that subjects had at that moment. Andit was measured by 24-items mood states that contained in a questionnaire. 1.7.5 Distance Completion.
Operationally, subjects performed cycling for 20minutes which they were instructed to cycle as fast as possible.