CHAPTER 1The Problem and Its BackgroundIntroductionThe Philippines has undergone a major development in education last 2015 because of the implementation of the K-12 curriculum. This curriculum really made a loud noise in the country, a lot of questions arise and people were against this change but still it was implemented and up to this moment is still the curriculum of our education system. According to the Philippine Normal University Outcomes Based Teacher Education Curriculum (OBTEC) Model, as RA 9647 declared PNU as the National Center for Teacher Education it is the duty and responsibility of the university to “take the lead in educational reforms in teacher education through a more responsive, relevant, innovative and empowering teacher education curriculum” and since K-12 is an educational reform, the administration also took an action on how it will be responsive to this reform thus OBTEC happened.
OBTEC is discipline grounded, K-12 responsive so that the students produced by the university are capable and geared to teach the K-12 students. It is also internationally benchmarked to cope with the ASEAN Integration, students will learn the essential 21st century skills that will lead them to be globally comparable to other students in different countries around the world. With that being said, it can be inferred that a lot is expected from the students that will undergo in the OBTEC which is true because upon implementation of this curriculum last school year 2014-2015, students started to complain and a lot of rants were heard.
The PNU diaries, a page in facebook that serves as a “diary” of the students where they can send anonymously was bombarded with complains and sentiments that OBTEC is not helping and maybe it is not well planned. Having all this information, knowing that the university only wants the best for the students and the quality of education the Philippines will have by implementing the OBTEC and also knowing the sentiments and opinions of the students who experienced the said curriculum. This lead the researcher to explore on the side that the curriculum is not the problem but how the student coped with it. The researcher hypothesized that the victim mentality of these students has a significant relationship to their emotional dysregulation that lead them on acting that way such as ranting or complaining about the curriculum. The concept of victim mentality means that the person that has this mentality, blames the challenges in his/her life on others or circumstances around him/her that he/she always see as unfair which may lead to emotional dysregulation. According to Strategies to Deal with a Victim Mentality by Dr. Judith Orloff (2012) here are some of the characteristics of people with victim mentality.
They have the poor-me attitude, and is allergic to taking responsibility for their actions. They also think that people are always against them and that is the reason for their unhappiness. They portray themselves as unfortunates who demand rescuing, and they will make people around them their therapist. For emotional dysregulation it refers to the inability of a person to control or regulate their emotional responses to provocative stimuli. Based on the group of health care professionals on their page Dialectical Living (2014), they stated some of the manifestations of emotional dysregulation is angry outburst, substance use/abuse, depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, self harm through cutting and many other possible maladaptive behaviors. In additional, emotional dysregulation can lead to behavioral problems and can interfere with a person’s social interactions and relationships at home, in school, or at place of employment.
Conceptual FrameworkFig. 1 The relationship of the victim mentality of PNU OBTEC students to their emotional dysregulation. Victim mentality is defined as the mentality of a person that blames the challenges in his/her life on others or circumstances around him/her that he/she always see as unfair which may lead to emotional dysregulation.
Emotional dysregulation on the other hand is defined as the inability of a person to control or regulate their emotional responses to provocative stimuli.Theoretical BasesThe Attribution Theory of Bernard Weiner is particularly informative on student learning in school settings. The assumptions of Weiner’s theory of attribution is that learners are affected by both environmental factors (e.g., characteristics of the students’ home or school) and by personal factors (e.g., prior experiences and prior knowledge). These background variables affect the types of attributions that individuals likely to make.
Weiner identified ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck as the most important factors affecting attributions for achievement. Attributions are classified along three causal dimensions: locus of control, stability, and controllability. The locus of control refers to whether the cause of the event is perceived as internal to the individual or external.
The stability dimension is whether the cause can be unstable or unstable across time and situations. The controllability dimension whether the cause of the event is perceived as being under the control of the individual.Weiner’s theory also indicates that various causal dimensions are associated with certain emotional responses. The dimension of locus of control is related to feelings of pride and self-esteem. The stability dimension is the feelings of hopefulness or hopelessness; attributions to unstable causes, by contrast to stable causes, suggest the possibility of a different outcome in the future. The controllability dimension is related to feelings as shame, guilt, anger, gratitude, and pity.
The five factor theory of Robert R. McCrae and Paul T. Costa, Jr. explains that there were five major factors and these are considered to be the underlying traits that wake up an individual’s overall personality. This theory states that each person has five traits— Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism— which are scored on a continuum from high to low. Openness – It is a tendency to enjoy new experiences, especially intellectual experiences, the art fantasies, and anything that exposes the person to new ideas. Those who score high in openness tend to be curious, has a wide range of interests, and independent. While those who score low tend to be practical, conventional, and prefers routine.
Conscientiousness – It is a tendency to show self-discipline, to be dutiful, and to strive for achievement and competence. An individual who scores high on this tends to be hardworking, organized, and dependable. An individual who scores low tends to be impulsive, disorganized, and careless.Extraversion – It is a tendency to seek new experiences and to enjoy the company of others. Individuals who score high in extraversion tend to be outgoing, warm, and seeks adventure. While those who score low tend to be quiet, reserved, and withdrawn.Agreeableness – A tendency to be compassionate toward others. It implies a concern for the welfare of other people.
An individual who scores high tends to be helpful, trusting, and empathetic, while individual who score low tend to be uncooperative, critical, and suspicious.Neuroticism – It is a tendency to experience unpleasant emotions relatively easily. People who score high in neuroticism tend to be anxious, unhappy, and prone to negative emotions.
While people who score low tend to be calm, even-tempered, and secured.The theory of McCrae and Costa can explain the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, especially the neuroticism trait. Statement of the Problem This study aims to know the relationship of victim mentality of PNU OBTEC students to their emotional dysregulation. Specifically:Will PNU OBTEC students score high in the scale of victim mentality? Will PNU OBTEC students score high in the scale of emotional dysregulation? If victim mentality is significantly related to the emotional dysregulation of these students.Hypothesis:The study has an alternative hypothesis:H1: There is a significant relationship between victim mentality and emotional dysregulation of PNU OBTEC students.Significance of the StudyThis study will be beneficial to the following:School The researcher will give the statistics of students who score high on the two scales they answered to the school administrators. The statistics and the findings of the study will enable them to develop a program that will address the issues raised during the conduct of the study concerning victim mentality and emotional dysregulation.Guidance OfficeUsing the results of the study, the guidance counselors could develop a program that will help the students to cope with the emotional dysregulation that they were experiencing.
StudentsThe students will know their scores in victim mentality and emotional dysregulation scale through these they could check their emotional regulation and response to their environment specially to their school work and if there is an imbalance they could start to seek help to the guidance office. Future researchersThey will be provided with data that they can use for their future studies where they can investigate other factors that could affect the variables that were not included in the present study.Scope and Limitations of the Study The respondents of the study are OBTEC students from Philippine Normal University. The research covered the relationship of victim mentality and emotional dysregulation. The researcher will use the nonprobability convenience sampling technique to gather the respondents of the study. Through a survey questionnaire, data will be gathered by the researcher.Definition of TermsThe following terms are defined as they were used in this study.
Emotional Dysregulation. According to Psychological Care and Healing Center, it refers to the inability of a person to control or regulate their emotional responses to provocative stimuli.OBTEC. Outcomes Based Teacher Education Curriculum.
It is the current curriculum of PNU, it started in 2014. OBTEC is discipline grounded, K-12 responsive so that the students produced by the university are capable and geared to teach the K-12 students. It is also internationally benchmarked to cope with the ASEAN Integration, students will learn the essential 21st century skills that will lead them to be globally comparable to other students in different countries around the world.OBTEC Students. Refers to the students who enrolled in Philippine Normal University in 2014 up to the present. .
Victim Mentality. It refers to blaming the challenges of one’s own life on others or circumstances around him/her that he/she always see as unfair.CHAPTER IIReview of Related Literature and Studies This chapter discusses the literature, articles, and research studies conducted on victim mentality and emotional dysregulation.Victim Mentality Victim mentality is a term in psychology which refers to a type of dysfunctional mindset that seeks to feel persecuted for them to gain attention or to avoid self-responsibility. People who’s struggling with this tend to convince themselves that life is not only beyond their control, but could also hurt them.
These thinking leads to constant blame, finger-pointing, and pity parties that are fuelled by pessimism, fear, and anger (Mateo Sol).According to PsycholoGenie, victim Mentality is a learned and acquired behavior, which means that it does not have any biological or genetic basis. It is solely the person’s negative thoughts and negative experiences that made him/her acquire this kind of mentality. In support to this, Mateo Sol in his article 23 Signs You’re Suffering From a Victim Mentality, he said that just like no one is born clinically depressed or anxious, no one is also born with victim mentality. It is an acquired personality trait, thus the result of early life conditioning and coping mechanisms. Most of these victims were in victimized as a children whether that be through physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse or psychological abuse. Self-victimization can also develop through codependent relationships that they had with their parents, or simply by observing and adopting the unhealthy victim mentality exhibited by one or more of their family members.
Furthermore, Mateo Sol listed signs to look out for to know if a person is “playing a victim” or has this victim mentality and here are the some: They constantly blaming other people or situations for feeling miserableThey possess a “life is against me” philosophyThey are cynical or pessimisticThey see their problems as catastrophes and blow them out of proportionThey think others are purposely trying to hurt themThey believe that they are the only one being targeted for mistreatmentThey keep reliving past painful memories that made them feel like a victimEven when things go right, they find something to complain aboutThey refuse to consider other perspectives when talking about your problemsThey feel powerless and unable to cope effectively with a problem or life in generalThey feel attacked when they’re given constructive criticismThey believe that they are not responsible for what happens in their lives (others are)They believe that everyone is “better off” than themThey seem to enjoy feeling sorry for themselves They are constantly putting yourself downNote that majority of people who play the victim do so unconsciously, or unintentionally.In addition, a person with this mentality tends to be in this state because of the benefits that they get from other people around them. According to Harley Therapy (2016) these are some of those benefits:First is they don’t have to take responsibility for things they do, they have the right to complain and receive attention from other people for other people feels sorry for them. They also think that people are less likely criticise or upset them because of their “situation”. The most beneficial of all is that others may feel compelled to help them and do what they ask for. Harley Therapy also gave emphasis of what the true benefits of being a victim could get which are: attention, feeling valued, and power.
Emotional Dysregulation According to Dialectic Living, emotional dysregulation is defined in mental health community as an emotional response that is poorly modulated, and does not fall within the conventionally accepted range of emotive response. It may also be referred as a labile mood or marked fluctuation of mood. Its manifestations may include anger outburst, substance use/abuse, depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, self harm and many other possible maladaptive behaviours. These variations usually occur in seconds to minutes or hours. This kind of dysregulation could lead to behavioral problems that can interfere with the person’s social interactions and relationships at home, in school, or at place of employment.According to Dr. Francesco Bernardi (2017) emotional dysregulation is just a phrase to describe a difficulty in managing one’s emotions, which may interfere with our daily functioning at work and in our private life.
This means that when a person is distressed, the threshold for stress in life can reach very low levels thus the person may have strong emotional reactions when he/she encounter a difficulty, when things did not go their way. However, it must take into consideration that emotional dysregulation is can be classified as a disorder which is a mood disorder that is characterized by difficulty in the regulation of emotional responses and behavior that is commonly attributed to Attention Deficit Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress disorder (Adam Gerbman, 2017). According to Clearview Women’s Center, those who suffer from emotional dysregulation are often seen as aggressive, baiting, or testing others, and as generally trying to cause conflict. Emotional dysregulation is often an misunderstood disorder which is why it is frequent that it leads to conflict and misunderstanding that put a strain on the person’s personal and professional relationships. Clearview Women’s Center also provided signs and symptoms of emotional dysregulation and it includes the following: Trying to control someone else’s relationshipsSearching for someone to blame when a problem arises rather than seek a solutionHarboring grudges, or hanging onto unresolved angerCreating and reveling in conflictMaintaining an unfounded fear of abandonmentA sense of entitlementLiving in denial, or believing that a past event or circumstance is fictionalEngaging in circular conversations or arguments with seemingly no logic or endTendency to self-harm through cutting or self-abusive disorders such as substance abuse or an eating disorder.
They also emphasized that there is no comprehensive list of symptoms, and it is certain that everyone experiences some of these symptoms at some of point in their lives. Their major concern here are those people who are still suffering from emotional dysregulation chronically and has an ongoing difficult time with the level of cooperation and social ability required for a healthy and fulfilling existence.Synthesis The CHAPTER IIIMethodologyThis chapter deals with the methods of research, respondents, data gathering and statistical treatment of data that will be use in the study.Research Design The researcher will use the descriptive method using correlational technique of research. It aimed to find out the relationship of victim mentality and emotional dysregulation of OBTEC students of PNU.Respondents The respondents of this study are 80 OBTEC students from Philippine Normal University who enrolled from school year 2014 up to present.Sampling Procedure The researcher will use nonprobabilty convenience sampling technique to gather the respondents in this study.
In this sampling procedure, the respondents will be selected because of their convenient accessibility and proximity to the researcher.InstrumentationThe researcher will conduct two (2) instruments on the 80 OBTEC students from PNU in gathering the data needed for the study. The first one is about victim mentality and the second survey is about emotional dysregulation.The first instrument is theThe second instrument is the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), a self- report questionnaire which was developed by Kim L. Gratz and Lizabeth Roemer to assess multiple aspects of emotion dysregulation. It is composed of 36 statements that can be answered for about 8 minutes.The DERS items were chosen to reflect difficulties within the following dimensions of emotion regulation:Non-acceptance of emotional responses (NONACCEPT) – Tendency to have a negative secondary or non accepting reaction to one’s own distress.
Difficulties engaging in goal directed behaviour (GOALS ) – Impulse control difficulties (IMPULSE)Lack of emotional awareness (AWARE)Limited access to emotion regulation strategies (STRATEGIES)Lack of emotional clarity (CLARITY)Data Gathering and Procedures The researcher will conduct the study at Philippine Normal University. A letter of consent will be given to the respondents that will serve as an agreement to participate in the study. The first scale to be given to them is the victim mentality scale, to be followed by emotional dysregulation scale.Ethical Considerations To avoid ethical issues in this study, ethical principles must be considered for the welfare of the respondents. Consent form will be given to the respondents for them to know the purpose of the study. The respondents’ autonomy will be valued, in case the respondents did not want to continue answering the surveys; they have the right to withdraw their participation.
Their identity will remain confidential. The researcher will respect their privacy; questions which might intrude their personal life will not be given.Lastly, the respondents have the right to have their results.
Statistical Treatment of Data The researcher will use the following tools to analyze and interpret the data that will be obtained in the study:Mean will be computed for the basic information of the respondents such as age and sex.Pearson r (r) will be computed to determine the relationship between victim mentality and emotional dysregulation of the respondents.References:Dialectical Living.
(2014). What is emotion dysregulation? Retrieved fromhttp://www.dialecticalliving.ca/emotion-regulation-disorder-bpd/Harley Therapy. (2016). The victim mentality – what it is and why you use it.
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learning-theories.com/weiners-attribution-theory.htmlLonerwolf. 23 signs you’re suffering from a victim mentality. Retrieved from: https://lonerwolf.
com/victim-mentality/Patef-update national convention. (2015). The Philippine Normal University outcomes-basedteacher education curriculum model. Retrieved from:http://patef-update.org/resources/PROF.%20RUSCOE.
pdfPsychestudy. (2017). Weiner attribution theory. Retrieved fromhttps://www.psychestudy.com/social/weiner-attribution-theoryPsycholoGenie.
14 signs of victim mentality you need to know. Retrieved from: https://psychologenie.com/signs-of-victim-mentality Psychological Care and Healing Center. (2017). Emotional dysregulation disoder. Retrieved from:http://www.pchtreatment.com/what-we-treat/emotional-dysregulation/Psychology today.
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