CHAPTER3METHODOLOGYThe chapter relates to the process aswell as method of the study and describes in detail the different stages bywhich the study has gone through.ResearchDesignThe selection of the research designdepends upon the aim of the study as well as the form of concerns that effortsto resolve (Yin, 2003). This study seeks to enquire the perception ofProspective Teachers to what extent the content of Peace Education was beingimplemented from the curriculum and to what extent the content of PeaceEducation must be encompassed in the curriculum. For this purpose quantitativeapproach was adopted to explore the phenomena.
Basically the research design isdescriptive in nature. The research was conducted in different Universities ofLahore. For this purpose, survey technique was selected to collect informationfrom the students. Because the survey technique is useful in gatheringinformation from the people at small scale who represent the whole population(sample survey research).
Due to the high representativeness caused by thesurvey technique, it is usually better to get statistically significant effectsas compare to any other data gathering approach. Several factors may also beefficiently examined by utilizing survey technique. This technique permitspeople to feel more candid with their responses and provides high reliabilitythat eradicates the researcher’s own biasness which led to precise the results.
“Survey techniques provide on their ownin order to probability sampling from large Populations. Therefore, Surveystudies really attractive whenever small sample generalizability is really amain investigation objective. Actually, Survey studies represent the attitudesand characteristics of large population.”(Weiss et al.
, 2001)PopulationThe population mentioned in the table3.1 given below taken to conduct this study was the male and female prospectiveteachers of Public and private Universities of Lahore.Table3.1TotalPopulation by Programme Sr.NO Classes(Major) M.A(Edu) M.Ed B.
Ed B.Ed(Hons) Total 1 No.of Students 430 448 1176 188 2242 SamplingThe study was descriptive in nature; bythe researcher it was not possible to access the total population according totable 3.1 given above. Subsequently the researcher used randomSampling technique for the study becauseit was the most suitable technique to gather data.he Researcher conducted studyon four (Major) classes from University of Education Lahore i.
e.. Ed, MA(Education) and B.Ed (Honor).
Rationalof the Sample1. Keeping in view of the purpose of thestudy only such Division/ campuses were selected Where the B.Ed, M.Ed, M.AEducation and B.
Ed (Hon) classes were offered.2. Rational of the sample describes theentire target population because:a) Homogenity of the “target and accessiblepopulation’.b) Different Universities as like UMTLahore, Minhaj University Lahore, university of Punjab Lahore, Lahore CollegeWoman university Lahore, Leads Universit Lahore are mainly responsible forpreparing the course outline of all the “Targeted programs i e. B.Ed, M.Ed, M.
A Education”.3. The researcher selected 513 students outof 2242 students for collecting data and circulated the questionnaire to thestudents. The standard sample size i.e. 513 was determined at 99% confidencelevel with 05 confidence interval of total population 2242.Instrumentfor Data CollectionQuestionnaire is the main instrument inthe survey techniques that used to study problems and behaviors that vary timeto time, in quantify form (methods in educational Research). “The Questionnaireis a widely used and useful instrument for collecting survey information,providing Structured, often numerical data, being able to be administeredwithout the presence of the Researcher, and often being comparativelystraightforward to analyze” (Wilson and McLean 1994y A questionnaire usedas a tool of research to gather the data from sample and get Validated fromexperts/supervisor.
The questionnaire consisted of 64 variables upon which the Opinionof the students was measured on Preparedness of Prospective Teachers inPromoting Peace Education in the University of Education, Lahore for currentsituation and also their Recommendation for the future. There were three mainfactors on which data to be collected from Prospective Teachers. The factorswere Promoting Peace Education as a part of their ‘Amu’ Mucational and Socialmatters.
The questions were to be answered on 5 point liken Not at AIL. ’10Some Extent, o Medium Extent, To Large Exte t and To Very Largely)for current situation as well as future situation. The researcher categoriesitems as: Factors Sr.No Statement Personal 1 Art of Mediation 2 Art of reconciliation 3 Art of negotiation 4 Building relationship with others 5 Awareness about non violence 6 How to solve intra conflicts 7 How to solve problems 8 How to handle undesired situation 9 How to manage time effectively 10 Personal developments 11 Self-awareness 12 How to cope with stress 13 How to show patience 14 Forgiveness 15 How to build tolerance 16 Positive vision 17 Self-respect 18 How to make right decision 19 Avoiding Deprivation of basic human need 20 Economical oppression 21 Avoiding Male chauvinism 22 Avoiding Discrimination 23 How to control anger 24 How to show patience Educational 25 Educational planning 26 How to plan educational activates 27 Test taking skills 28 Curriculum development 29 Study skill techniques 30 Creating peaceable classroom 31 Promoting post conflict stability 32 Increasing peace building capacity 33 International education Social 34 How to mitigate conflicts 35 Restorative justice 36 Culture of peace 37 Inter person skill 38 How to overcome trauma 39 Encouraging peer counseling 40 Multicultural awareness 41 Society awareness 42 Gender equity 43 How to set environment favorable 44 Culture of peace in school 45 How to understand culture of peace in community 46 How to understand culture of peace in society 47 How to care human rights 48 Avoiding bullying 49 How to avoid noise pollution 50 Peace club 51 Peace games 52 Upholding human dignity 53 Challenging prejudice 54 Human solidity 55 Empathy 56 Respect for others 57 Compassion 58 Decreasing ethnic stereotype 59 Proposing world peace 60 Direct violence through physical confrontations 61 Global citizenship 62 Avoiding marginalizing the minorities Validation ofInstrumentGay’s explantion seemed to be consideredfor a qualifying measure for any understanding of validity. As per theexplanation “validation is a degree to which a test Measures what it supposedto measure… (and) and for what and for when” (Clay, 2005).
Identical Reviewof literature also helped in the development and in addition validation to theinstrument. Pilotstudya) Validity1. Theinstrument consisting of questionnaire to measure the opinion of the students onPreparedness of Prospective Teachers in Promoting Peace Education in thedifferent Universities Lahore was conducted as a pilot study.
2. Thefocus Group, in the first phase comprised the 03 M.Ed. 03 M.A Education studentsof different universities of Lahore and the 03 M.
Ed. & 03 M.A Education indifferent universities situated in Lahore.
3. Responsefrom the pilot study was used to review and revise the items which wereapparently ambiguous or were not appropriate and relevant to the study.4.
Inthe second phase, the instrument was further modified in the light of thesupervisor’s guidance.5. Basedon the comments of students, received through the pilot study and guidance ofthe supervisor, the draft consisting 78 items was reduced to 64 and 2 itemswere revised in the questionnaire.b) Reliability1.
Forreliability 0: M.FA &r. 10 MA Education students of selective Universitiesof Lahore and the 10 M.
Ed& 10 M.A Education many universities located inLahore.2. Forassessing international consistency “Based on determination of how all items ona test related to all other items and to the total test. ” “Gay, 2005)Cranach’sAlpha for the Questionnaire was found 0.933. Onthe whole the reliability co efficient were satisfactory, through in measuringindividual perception in such studies, even the “reliability in the eighties”is acceptable (Gay, 2005)Distribution of Questionnaireand collection of DataResearcher himself visited all theconcerned institutions i.
e. Divisions/Campuses.Questionnaire was distributed among 513students of B.Ed, M.Ed, M.A Education, Mphil (edu) and PHD (edu).The receiving ratio of the questionnairewas about 75 percent which can be Considered positive.DataAnalysisThe gathered data from the students wasanalyzed with the help of computer programmed (statistical package for socialscience) SPSS.
Data for Preparedness of Prospective Teachers in Promoting PeaceEducation was collected on five point likertscale (Not at All, To Some Extent, To Medium Extent, To Large Extentand To Very Large Extent). To analyze the collected data Researcher useddescriptive statistics (frequencies, percentage mean and standard deviation) on64 variables. This data was compared in a collective form. Opinions ofProspective Teachers were compared and interpreted by applying ‘t-test’ andANOVA.
Independent sample Vistas.Thiskind of parametric statistical test is employed to assess Whether there significantdifference between the means of two samples is a significant (Frankel &Wallen2008).