Civilization and eventually

Barbarians were assimilated into the civilization and eventually the individual societies became isolated. They were self-sufficient and were basically ruled by Feudalism. The Byzantine Empire was the most developed at first, but were quickly overtaken by the Arabic World. The Byzantine Empire falls in 1453 CE to the Ottoman Empire. Islam spread extremely quickly from 620 CE when it was established, and 620 – 1258 CE is considered the Golden Age of Islam. Many of their conquests were Byzantine territories. They also reinstated and preserved many ancient Greek texts. Christianity became very important during the “Dark Ages” of Europe.

It was the on organized institution that survived and even flourished after the fall of the Roman power in the fact that it could excommunicate someone, which at that time was a fate worse than death. The bishop of Rome claimed supremacy and was from now on the Pope. The Great Schism The Great Schism was the split in Christianity that occurred in 1054. The main cause of the split was the fight over who’s the true authority of the Christian Church, the pope in Rome, or the Patriarch in Constantinople? The Latin West (Rome) because the Roman Catholic Church after the schism and the Byzantine East became the Greek Orthodox Church.

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Feudalism Feudalism was essentially a self-sufficient society that consists of lords, vassals, and serfs. Serfs are almost like slaves that work in the land their entire lives. The vassals (lesser lords) controlled the serfs and the piece of land they worked on, and the lords controlled the vassals. The vassals offered loyalty and military service to the lord, who in turn provide land and protection. Because of this system, almost all trade and education were nonexistent. Rise of Towns and Commerce Venice was founded in about 570 CE, and started up long distance trade again.

Once this process started it tended to snowball. The more people that settled in a town, the more food they need to buy from the country, and the more craftsmen that left, the more the feudal lords had to buy crafts from the towns. By 1100 CE, many of these centers or towns existed all over Europe. With the rise of towns and commerce, towns became wealthier and more education resulted from it. A new middle class of merchants and craftsmen also appeared. Christian Reforms Over the course of the Dark Ages, even though the Church was so powerful, it still declined.

Most of the clergy couldn’t read or write, the church was fragmented and localized, and Rome was barely more than a faint memory to people. Also, corruption in the church was a big problem. To try to reform the church, serious Christians formed a new monastery in Clung, France, which soon spread to many other areas. Pope Gregory VII also made strong efforts to reform the church. Together, they banned lay investiture, forced priests to practice celibacy, and tried to rid the Church of greed, ignorance, and immorality. Thomas Aquinas Biography was a survey of all knowledge.

His chief achievement was combining faith and logic & reason. In other words, he demonstrated that Christianity and Greece-Roman knowledge were not in conflict. His philosophy was to examine the world around him intently and that reason could not weaken faith. A History of World Societies: Europe in the Renaissance Economic and Political Origins of the Italian Renaissance The period from about 1050 to 1300 (CE) witnessed phenomenal commercial and financial development, the growing political power of self-governing cities in Italy, ND great population expansion. The period from the asses to asses is called the Renaissance.

The cultural achievements in the Renaissance rested on the economic and political developments of earlier centuries. The period from 1050 to 1300 is called the Commercial Revolution. Northern Italian cities (Venice, Florence, Milan, Papal States, and the Kingdom of Naples) led the way. All of these cities, except Florence, were near in a body of water, which provided transportation for trade. Florence flourished from bankers that acquired control of papal banking, and also its wool industry. Italian Cities/States All of the cities were republics in name, but they were ruled De facto by a couple of important, powerful Roman families.

So these cities were actually oligarchies. Florence was ruled by the Medici family. Overall, their biggest failure was their inability to form a common alliance against foreign enemies, always trying to sabotage each other in order to gain the upper hand, but in the end this Just made them susceptible to invasion. Intellectual Hallmarks of the Renaissance The “-isms” of the Renaissance Individualism stressed personality, uniqueness, and the full development of capabilities and talents. In short, it was feeding your own ego and saying that you’re special and different from everyone else.

Humanism was very similar to this, and it focused on the achievements, interest, and capabilities of human beings, especially the ancient Greek thinkers. Secularism was the basic concern with the material world instead of with eternal and spiritual matters. Contrary to the first two, this directly went against Christianity and religion. Attention was concentrated on the here and now, often on the acquisition of material things, rather than focusing on the otherworldly, on life after death. This obtaining wealth that could bring material pleasures. Realism in the arts is the depiction of subjects as they appear in everyday life.

This resulted in more “realistic” paintings that used perspective. Pico Della Miranda Pico Della Miranda was a Florentine writer that wrote the essay On the Dignity of Man. He stressed that man possessed great dignity, and man’s place in the universe is somewhere between the beasts and the angels, but, because of the divine image planted in him, there are no limits to what he can accomplish. This paralleled Thomas Aquinas’ thinking because they both allowed humans to study and explore he “real” world and stated that this did not conflict with Christianity.

Art and the Artists The themes in the art of the Renaissance were more classical values. They valued physical appearance and symmetry and balance. Pagan influences also crept into the art, which depicted ancient Greek gods in addition to Christian images. Secular influences and realism also were part of Renaissance art. The Renaissance was actually an elitist movement that only affected about 10% of the population at the top, which consisted of thinkers, artists, and intellectuals. For the rower 90% of the population, life remained the same throughout the Renaissance.

A contributing factor to this were the artists/sculptors reputations and egos. They would only create art for the upper class of nobles that could actually afford this and would raise their status. The Renaissance in the North The Italian and Northern European Renaissance were different in several ways. This included countries such as Flanders, Belgium, Netherlands and Germany. The Italian Renaissance was more secular, focused on appearance, and more materialistic. However, the Northern Renaissance focused more on ethics, morals, and the values f Christianity.

They tried to incorporate Christian values into everyday life in order to improve it. They believed that the classical ideals of calmness, stoical patience, and broad-mindedness should be Joined with the Christian values of love, faith, and hope. They both believed that society could be improved through education. Thomas More Thomas More wrote the book Utopia, which described an ideal socialistic community on an island somewhere where society and life are perfect. All the children receive a good education, and adults divide their days between manual labor/business pursuit and intellectual activities.

It says the institutions such as the church and government are the sources of evil and corruption, not individuals. It reflected the mood of the focus on learning, and by this way they learn to reason, which will result in peace and prosperity. The Prince and Utopia both talk about how things should be, and ideals. However, Utopia deals more with idealism, and something that couldn’t happen. The Prince is more realistic and provides guideline for a ruler, which is very possible. Desires Rearms Rearms was a Dutch humanist that defined the principles of Christian humanism in the Northern Renaissance.

He said the education, study of the Bible and the classic, is the means to reform, and the key to moral and intellectual improvement. Christianity is an inner attitude of the heart, not formalism, special ceremonies, or law. Social Changes during the Renaissance Renaissance Man A Renaissance man is someone who is well rounded and able to excel in everything he does. He should have a broad background in many academic subjects, and his spiritual, physical, and intellectual capabilities should be trained. Balderdash Castigation wrote The Courtier, which served as the guidebook for a Renaissance an.

Women Upper class women received much more education during the Renaissance than they did in the Middle Ages, but had fewer opportunities to exercise that knowledge. They had fewer positions in government, and had less power than in the Middle Ages. They were generally bound to home, though there were a few exceptions. Printing Press The printing press was developed by Johannes Gutenberg in 1455, which allowed printed paper to be mass produced. It helped people to express their ideas on paper, and made propaganda much easier. It helped people spread their ideas on posters ND flyers, and encouraged people to start social movements.

Giordano Savonarola Savonarola was an Italian religious and political reformer. He was a Dominican monk. He was strictly against secularism/materialism and the Renaissance and the Medici family. He and his follower, “The Weepers”, made huge “bonfires of the religious fundamentalism. He purposely made himself look and dress at the bare minimum, to be a model of this. His views were extreme and he practiced self- flagellation, which is whipping of oneself to become more humble in the eyes of god. In 1498, he was hung for falsely claiming to have seen visions and uttered reproaches.

Religious Fundamentalism A movement or point of view characterized by a return to fundamental principles, by rigid adherence to those principles, and often by intolerance of other views and opposition to secularism. Sermon XIII On Haggis According to Savonarola, the superior form of government would be one with a single person ruling as the head. He wanted a theocratic monarchy. This person would have to be a good person and favorable to unity. He looked down on the Medici family because they weren’t granted power to rule by god, and yet they still were the De actor rulers of Florence.

He also denounced the art the Medici commissioned and the Renaissance as whole. He also believed that secularism was corrupting people’s souls, and in order to save them, he believed that people should live by God, not for worldly matters. He also believes that the clergy should be reformed. He said that the clergy should be a model on how people should live, and they were not. He said that the clergy should let go of material wealth, especially the way they dressed. He criticizes the superficial, egotistical, and self-focused values of the Renaissance. Timeline