Communicable Diseases

Communicable diseases are those that are spread from one person to another person, from animal to animal, or from animal to person, or vice versa. It is likely that everyone will come down with a communicable disease at some point in their lives.

It is important to learn about the causes of communicable diseases and ways to prevent their spread.For example, some may say that HIV is caused by sexual contact. This is not true. It is simply the way it is spread. Causes of communicable diseases are dependent on a number of factors, including the agent, environment, transfer method and host.CAUSES OF COMMUNICALE DISEASESThe AgentIn most cases, communicable diseases are either viruses or bacteria. These are known as agents.

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Both have the ability to cause remarkably similar symptoms. In most cases, those who are unsure should be checked by a doctor in order to get an accurate diagnosis. In both cases, the doctor can prescribe a treatment plan, if one exists, for the patient.

EnvironmentOne of the primary causes of communicable diseases is the environment. Diseases are much more likely to spread in places where hygienic practices are minimal. Furthermore, being around those with communicable diseases is also a high-risk factor. Therefore, care should be taken to keep the environment as clean as possible and avoid direct contact with those who are ill whenever possible.HostEvery virus must have a host in order to carry out a life cycle of replication, which is responsible for eventually making a person becoming ill.

Bacteria, which can live for an extended period of time outside of a host, still need to find one eventually. Therefore, these agents are engineered by evolution to seek out a host as quickly as possible .SIGNS AND SYMPTOMSBody painsFeverTirednessRestlessnessLoss of appetite and weightLack of energy and strengthIncreased frequency of stoolingRash in the mouth especially in cases of chicken pox and measles MODE OF TRANSMISSIONAn agent must have a way to move from a host (person or animal) to someone who can catch the disease. The way a disease spreads is called the mode of transmission. Communicable diseases are mainly spread in these ways:•Airborne: through the air;•Blood borne: infected blood or other body fluids contaminated with blood that come into contact with another person’s blood such as through a needle stick; •Contact: touching or other direct contact with bodily discharges, secretions or waste, an open wound, bandage, soiled objects or infected surface; •Fecal-oral: swallowing food that has been contaminated by human or animal waste.Putting your hands in your mouth after handling contaminated objects without first washing your hands can also transmit diseases; •Food borne: eating or drinking contaminated or spoiled food or liquid that contain bacteria or other infectious agents; •Animal-borne: contact with animals from bites, scratches, secretions or waste; or •Insect-borne: diseases spread by insects from bites, scratches, or contact with insect excrement or body parts. PREVENTIVE MEASURES.

Observing the rules of personal hygiene. Proper nutrition. Cultivate good health habits. Exercise your body regularly. Ensure proper sanitation of the environment.

Immunization. Isolation. Education