Theory A. Deft. “abstract generalization that systematically explains the relationships among phenomena. ” Has at least 2 concepts that the theory explains the relationship for. B. Theories are not discovered, they are created. C. Purpose: make research findings meaningful and interpretable. D. A descriptive theory (a more loose context used by some) refers to broad characterization of a single phenomenon. E. Factors influencing the development of theory a. Scientific Method b. Phenomenological Methods I. . Research II. Components of a Theory A. Concepts – ex. Health, stress, pain, coping, caring, social support, holism, etc. B. Theories contain a set of propositions (or statements) which establish a relationship among the concepts. C. The set of propositions form a logically Interrelated deductive system. This means that theory Is the roller of new statements (statements which are deduced from the propositions and can be tested empirically) Ill. Purposes of Theories A. Pull together findings into a systematic whole. Way of organizing knowledge. B.
Helps us to understand “why” natural phenomena occur as they do – when we know why we have the basis for predicting and controlling outcomes. C. Theories provide foundation for new research and new knowledge. IV. Scope of Theories A. Grand or macro theories are very broad in scope and therefore explain a lot of phenomena within the field. (ex. Theory of evolution) 8. Middle-range theories focus on a fairly narrow range of phenomena and incorporate a limited number of concepts. C. REMEMBER: Theories are never proved or disapproved. They are supported or data falls to support the theory. V.
Conceptual Frameworks (conceptual models, conceptual schemes) A. Are not as well developed as theories B. Tend to be global In scope C. Do have concepts as a foundation D. Do not have the deductive system of propositions that characterize a theory E. Do serve as basis for research F. Frameworks-conceptual underpinnings off study. Can be a theory I. E. Theoretical framework or can be a conceptual framework. Maybe implied rather than stated. All studies have a framework. G. Qualitative studies-framework maybe from the research tradition used by the researcher to approach the research question.
The ultimate goal of research Is theory development. There has been much discussion in nursing about whether a single macro theory will ever be created to explain all of nursing. Right now, we have multiple conceptual frameworks to use and work from. VI. Nursing Conceptual Frameworks see p. 158-159 Table 8. 1 Man b. Environment c. Nursing, and d. Health B. Frameworks based on systems a. Johnny’s Behavioral System-concerned with behavioral function; nursing focuses on helping patients balance in system and in subsystems b. Kings Interacting Systems Model-personal interacting systems.
Focus on social aspects, mutual goal setting, and patients’ perception of situation. . Newsman’s Health Care Systems Model-deals with systems response to stress; nurses help patients adapt and deal with stress d. Parse-model of man-living-health – man as open system that places meaning on a situation C. Frameworks based on adaptation Rosy Adaptation Model-describes 4 subsystems that lead to adaptation D. Eclectic/ Nurse Therapeutics Room’s Self-Care Theory – focus on self-care needs and deficits. Goals of nursing is to help patients meet self-care needs and return to caring for self E.
Holistic Martha Rogers Model of Unitary Man – focus on holistic human in interaction with environment and on human development. F. Pander’s Health Promotion Model VIII. Other theories used by nurse researchers A. Backer’s Health Belief Model B. Lazarus and Flagman’s Theory of Stress and Coping C. Jean’s Theory of Planned Behavior D. Bandanna’s Social Cognitive Theory E. Pater’s Reversal theory F. Borrowed vs.. Shared theories VI’. Relationship between theory and research – reciprocal or interrelated A. Theory is developed from observations – arises from research B. Theory is a source of scientific inquiry-generates new research hypotheses C.
Using theory in research rapports a. Testing a theory-researcher analyzes a theory and develops hypotheses. The hypotheses are then tested empirically. B. Sometimes researchers will test 2 theories at the same time to compare them. This is called theoretical triangulation. C. Fitting a Problem to a Theory-All researchers try to add to the general body of nursing knowledge. One way to assure the generalization and usefulness of findings is to fit the project into a conceptual context. Generally nurse researchers will try to find an appropriate theoretical model for their research.