Cotton, investigated that such extremely superhydrophobic behavior of

Cotton,
a crucial raw material for the textile industry has the worldwide popularity for its use.
Cotton is the fabric for every home due
to its comfortability than other fibers product. It is composed basically of cellulosic and non-cellulosic substances, a secondary wall and a tertiary wall. The
cell wall polymers are very easy to form
a crystalline composite due to their numerous hydroxyl groups, which help
cotton changes dimensions with changing outside force inducing crease to the
material. The most important factor in the textile
fabric is moisture transport. Water absorption is strictly
interconnected to moisture absorption and wettability. Cotton is a very comfortable to wear in all season. The cellulosic hydroxyl group in cotton
fiber makes it tremendous water loving adsorbent. So the surface modification is a very important task to improve water repellent
properties that rapidly move water away
from human body makes the wearer feel more comfortable with keeping him dry. Such extremely water-repellent surfaces are observable
in nature, mainly on lotus leaves.It has been investigated that such extremely superhydrophobic behavior of lotus
leaves arises due to the presence of hierarchical rough structure, and waxy
layer present on leaf surfaces.  Inspiration from the  naturally occurring smart surfaces() the textiles are prepared by tailoring the surface
morphology using techniques such as adsorption of low molecular compounds();
electrodeposition(); chemical etching();laser treatment(); chemical vapour
deposition(); grafting of polymers(); growth of polymeric nanofillers() or
carbon nanotubes() or ZnO nanorods() etc. to improve its water-loving
character.More recently a new method has been employed to modify
surface properties of materials by forming a
polymeric film on a solid substrate through surfactant adsorption. This
surfactant aided polymerization technique is known as admicellar polymerization.            Admicellar
polymerization is one of the in-situ polymerization processes to coat the substrate surface by formation of the ultra-thin polymeric film inside the bilayer of
adsorbed surfactant called admicelle() without
changing the bulk properties of surfaces. This surface polymerization involves
four main steps: admicelle formation,
monomer adsolubilization, the formation of
polymer and removal of surfactant as shown in Fig.1.After the formation of admicelle
aggregates through the adsorption of surfactants at a solid-liquid interfaces
monomer will partition into the
core of the admicell in a process called adsolubilization. Then in the presence of thermal
initiator monomer in admicelle undergoes
polymerization reaction forming a region of high monomer density at
the soli-liquid interface to form a thick
or thin polymeric layer on the substrate of the surface. After completion of polymerization, the solid substrate is washed away
to remove excess surfactant to expose the polymeric layer on the substrate
surface. CMC plays an important role in
surfactant aggregation. Below the CMC, at
a sufficiently high concentration surfactants migrate to the solid/liquid interface forming a bilayer shown
in Fig.1. Wu et al. studied the formation of ultra-thin polystyrene films on
alumina by this technique using sodium dodecyl sulfate
(SDS) as a surfactant. Essumi et al. (1989) also created a surfactant coated
alumina with particle size 200 nm by admicellar polymerization technique using
a polymerizable surfactant 16. Admicellar polymerization has been
successfully employed to create various types of polymeric film on different
surfaces such as polystyrene on silica 17,
polystyrene on cotton 18, fluoropolymer on alumina 19. Admicellar
polymerizations have superior advantages such as
low energy consumption, it is water based, nanometer-scale
film formation is possible etc. when used on various solid surfaces.

Here our approaches to creating a double phase hydrophobic cotton textile by the
adsorption of the little amount of
fluorosurfactant and adsolubilization of low amounts of fluoromonomers
by admicellar polymerization technique. Among
known chemicals, fluorochemical coatings exhibit
undesirably high water contact angle by lowering the surface free energy and make fabric hydrophobic. Small size
and high electronegativity of fluorine element make
the covalent bond between fluorine and carbon are
exceptionally stable.
Fluorocarbon based polymers
have been demonstrated to have super-hydrophobic properties when hydrogen is replaced by Fluorine elements in the order
–CH3

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