There are automated methods of data entry – optical mark readers (NORM), optical character recognition (OCCUR), bar code readers, Specialized hardware/software needs to be purchased and staff trained to use them. Recessing Once the data has been inputted it needs to be processed into information. This requires hardware and software resources. The software may be ‘off the shelf or it may have been developed specifically for the organization or company. Either way it will cost maintenance There are costs involved in making sure that data remains accurate and up-to-date. For example, an origination maintains a database of its customers. The database will only remain accurate and up-to-date if changes to customers’ details are reported and then updated.
This involves communication with customers The task of keeping data up-to-date is expensive. Methods used include: frequent updating (typing in the changes) frequent collecting of data through questionnaires, letters or cheekiest interactive systems where a person can update his/her own detail deleting out-of-date data or data which is no longer needed making sure that all copies of the data are updated so that everyone uses the same, amended data. Example 2 It is no good having a mailing list when the addresses are no longer correct.
When people move house, mail continues to be sent to the old address until the relevant mailing list is updated. Companies who sell their products through direct mail (junk-mail is the more commonly used name! )need up-to-date lists of names and addresses of people who are likely to be interested in their product. An out-of-date list is of no value whatsoever. Remember people move house, grow old, die, and change their interests or buying habits. Errors on data entry Verification is the process Of checking that data has been correctly copied room one media to another.
Children. ; Dos text based has short cut keys- expert user ; Menu driven when want to limit choices ; Voice ; Specialists e. G. Touch sensitive Flatfishes vs. relational databases Database -A large collection of related files of data items and links between them, structured in a way that allows it to be accessed by a number of different applications programs. A collection of related records Records -The basic unit of data stored in a data file. -It is a collection of items which may be different data types, all relating to the individual or object the record describes. -It is treated as a unit for processing. Fields -Is part of a record designed to hold a single data item of a specified type. -Holds data items of the same data type Primary Key It IS a unique value which is used to identify a record.
Members Bookings staff Staff Affiliate Relational database Minimize s data duplication More expensive to create Ensures data consistency DB’S needs full time maintenance Ensure data integrity Controls data redundancy Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) Tutorials Special needs pupils; Spelling programs which have an interactive component testing student with games, quizzes and tests. A scoring system allows students to assess their progress. Often after 3 tries the answer or clues will be given to them. Picture and sound are used to enhance the experience. GEESE revision programs