Deductive reasoning is, in its bare bones, a form of reasoning which “conserves truth”. This proposes that a deduction begins by introducing a question, one which shall be answered by the end of the deductive process. Then, in order to provide an answer to the introduced question, necessary background research is completed to gain a sufficient understanding of the topic. Here, a hypothesis, a prediction made from limited prior observation is created, providing a starting point for possible further investigation and experimentation.
The formulated hypothesis is then put into testing, the results examined in afterwards to identify possibilities of a specific, logical conclusion. Based on this conclusion, the proposed hypothesis is either proven to be true or false within the original premises. As for the premises to be true and its conclusion to be false would be considered inconsistent, the steps provide the reasoning for denying situations which make all the premises true and the conclusion false.
This approach is distinctly comparable to inductive reasoning, which may provide a single observable reasoning out of possible many reasons. The process of inductive reasoning makes broad and general statements from specific observations. It begins with a specific conclusion drawn from data, producing generalized theories throughout the process. Here, many observations are made, a pattern is identified, and after a large generalization, a theory to the reason it occurred is inferred.
A scientific theory “should be consistent, not only internally or with itself, but also with other currently accepted theories applicable to related aspects of nature”(Kuhn). In the scientific world, consistency and guarantees are greatly important within data collection as it validates a method of approach as effective, therefore deductive reasoning is again of higher-caliber within the sciences.