Defintion of COPD:Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is a complexinflammatory disease that holds multiple interacting cells, mediators numeroustissue devastation and restoration instruments that lead to structuralvariations which result in progressive airflow confines with slight ability tobe reversed.
COPD is an obstructive disease in which the lungs progressivelyslows over many years which then lead to death from a respiratory failure, thisis unless the patient dies from a co-morbidity for instance heart disease orfrom lung cancer before this stage is reached. However, the most common way tocause chronic pulmonary disease is a result from long term smoking ofcigarettes, however some individuals commonly in developing countries developthis disease from inhaling smokes from materials such as woods, biomass fuelsor other inhaled irritants.Epidemiology – Risk Factors:Extrinsic issues are the loss ofelastic tissue support, this is for the small airways and the active expiratorycompression of all these important airways. Additional issues which includerespiratory muscle dysfunction will additional create less airflow in some individuals.
Hyperinflationwill also transpire in COPD, this leads to a growth in the functional residualcapacity this being the amount of air that stays in the lungs during the end ofeach tidal exhalation. This will result in gas caught and will resultin an increase in residual volume (RV). Therefore, there is an extension ininspiratory work of breathing, which is a significant importance in theproduction of dyspnea.
Expiratory time is vital for lung voiding, influencesthat reduce now, for example a growing respiratory rate while exercising whichwill result in a progressive rise in functionalresidual capacity. This spectacle is named dynamic hyperinflation, whichis mostly accountable for exercise restriction in COPD