Democratic politics and civilian politicians were not flourished inPakistan where multi party system operating.
The military of Pakistan notolerated the emergence of any independent power center that could createthreat to its internal autonomy and its dominance of both state and society.The removal of successive civilian governments of Nawaz Sharif in October 1999was a recent accident. It is the natureof Pakistani politics, there is now a consensus across the broad middle of thepolitical scenario that the basic problem in political system military noaccepts subordination to civilian authority. The politicians in Pakistan encouraging the army to use undemocraticmeans and methods for removal of civilian government.
The only silver lining to military rule inPakistan seems to be this emerging political agreement within the Alliance forthe Restoration of Democracy (ARD), comprising the mainstream politicalparties, on the future contours of civil-military relations in Pakistan asenvisaged in the 1973 Constitution. But could this be a case of too little, toolate. The ARD, torn by factional rivalries and competing political interests,remains largely ineffectual, as the regime has blocked all its efforts tomobilize the public. Thus the mainstream parties remain leaderless andmarginalized despite the ARD, and are in no position to fill the widening voidin Pakistani politics. This political vacuum could give the bold and vocalIslamic fundamentalist parties an opportunity to leverage public sentimentagainst the United States and its ally Musharraf for maximum politicaladvantage. Many moderate Pakistanis, including their self appointed president,consider that Islamic extremists have never been a significant force inelectoral politics.
They also point to the deep political and personalrivalries between the leaders of these groups. Others fear that the situationat hand is slightly differed. In Pakistan, each military intervention hascreated its own set of political distortions. As said (Leo Rose and D. HughEvans wrote in these pages in 1997):”The army’s wide political influence distorts the democraticprocess. Earlier periods of military intervention created new politicaldivisions. Groups that found themselves benefited by authoritarian rule wereopposed by others, often linked to the mainstream political parties that weresidelined or repressed.
During these times, the army itself became anincreasingly powerful vested interest in society” 4.1 Impacts of 9/11 on Pakistani politics:After the 9/11/2001 accident the Musharraf got decided to joininternational collation against terrorism. 36 political parties rose againstthe Musharraf decision and formed pak-Afghan defence council (PADC).
This plateform than changed Pakistan Defence Council (PDC). The six prominent religiouspolitical parties meet on 17 June 2001. They decided that contest the nextgeneral election under a common symbol and according of the Islamic ideologycouncil. The leader of the six religious political parties formed pre-electoralalliance Mutahidda Mujlis e Amal (MMA) in the presidency of Shah Ahmad Norani.
These six religious parties sidelined their internal difference andidealogy.the MMA contested general election 2002 under one symbol (Book) whichoften public considered the holly book of Allah (Quran). The MMA leaders usedMosque and madras’s for their political campaign. In previous elections, any religious party orits political alliance has not secured more than 10 seats in the NationalAssembly, and therefore, the outstanding position of MMA should be consideredas a landmark event in Pakistan’s roller coaster political journey.
The 2002elections were held under the military government of Musharraf. The domestic situation was also unusually favorable Islamists politicalparties. President Musharraf had imposed governor’s rule in the KPK aftermilitary takeover in 1999 and the 2002 general election was to be the firstgeneral elections since 1997. Two secular political parties which hadtraditionally been dominant in KPK politics one was Pakistan people’s party(PPP) and another was the Pashtoon nationalist Awami National Party (ANP) wereweak, disassociated, and demoralized. The MMA alliance also benefited fromsupport by the state, which recognized that the Islamists could serve as auseful tool by which the Musharraf government could control its chief politicalrivals in the KPK. In 2002 general election. MMA won 45 general seats innational assembly and 49 general seats in provincial assembly of KPK.
ThePakistani political system had mainly three horses: the Military, PML-Q and MMA