LAX airport becomes new port of entry California, the most populous state Sources of recent immigration More than % (legal, illegal) come from Central America % come from Asia Latino population grows by 24% Aslant population swells by 28% Illegal Immigration remains a problem About % of immigrants in America are illegal Nearly 850,000 unauthorized entrants yearly Nation’s “Broken Borders” Immigrants lose lives crossing the border into America from Mexico Immigration Act of 1965 Part of Johnny’s Great Society program Authorized impartial acceptance of immigrants from all parts of the world Directly expansible for influx of Asians, Mexicans Immigration Reform And Control Act of 1986 Aimed at curbing illegal immigration Offered amnesty to aliens living In U. S. Immigration Act of 1990 Opened doors wider Rose immigration quotas Cut back on restrictions for entry Swift deportation of criminal aliens Eligibility expanded again in 1992′ 2001- U. S. And Mexico begin talking about border security Rise in immigration led to anti-immigration feelings Social assistance programs based upon the welfare state Theme of multiculturalism Signs of a larger American identity, values Fear of loss of Jobs to immigrants
Cultural backlash of conflicting social patterns Proposition 187, California- 1994 Denied illegal immigrants access to public education, medical care Federal Courts issues an injunction Prevents implementation of Prop 187 – permanently Provides a model for other states to follow Republican Congress goes on to pass immigration legislation Barred legal immigrants from receiving food stamps, disability income and other federal programs of support California goes on to end support of bilingual education Economy improves Movement towards full employment in sass Political shift to immigration debate 000- Pressure grows to increase high-tech immigrant visas Admit more unskilled workers for public service sector Democrats and Republicans realize the voting power of Latino Elian Gonzales- Immigration Case, 1999 Cuban refuge pulled from Florida coast at age 6 Others on boat had drowned trying to reach U. S. Shoreline Father (in Cuba) had not given permission for the boy to leave- wanted him back Miami Cubans, who hated Communist Castro Cuba, pled for Élan’s asylum Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) argued Boy should be returned to his father in Cuba Boy is seized by INS and returned to his father in Cuba
INS later attacked following 9/1 1 attacks in 2001 Blamed for allowing Saudi immigrants into America Believed to have orchestrated airplane hijackers Americans began to look at Arabs/ Muslims poorly Condemn INS for security lapses Failed at screening out potential terrorists Post 9/1 1, U. S. Fears swelling numbers of illegal immigrants Congress passes measures to prevent immigrants access Volunteers patrol border between Mexico and Arizona 2006- Congress attempts to enact legislation Tighten border security Ease illegal immigration process to gain citizenship Did not pass Congress b). The census Of 2000 2000 Census shows a 13% increase in population Increase in immigration Longer life expectancy By 2008, the U. S. Caches 303 Million people Growth greatest in West- Expands by 19% Economics Social Cultural Race demographics Whites about 69% 12% African Americans 11% Latino Larger increases along border and urban centers Some movement to metropolitan suburbs 13% Asians Larger percentage increase in California- mostly suburban 2000 Census demonstrates several important factors in California Latino, Blacks, Asians, now outnumber whites First time whites are outnumbered in the state State politics begin to show shift in demographics 1991- Cruz Basement elected Lieutenant Governor First Latino elected to statewide office since 1871 2000 Census demonstrates desire of Americans to self-define as biracial, or multivalent In Hawaii, 21% identified their heritage as 2 or more soups Nationwide, more than 2. 4% identify as multiracial 2).
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CHANGE: American economy improves dramatically in sass Million of Americans: Remain poor and homeless Increasingly visible problem Equality efforts made great progress Faced resistance during long struggle for fair treatment a). Boom And Bust U. S. Economy rebounds even as world economy falters- 1992 German economy falters under ratification of unity Largest economy in Europe Japanese economy also struggles Second largest after U. S. Reasons for expansion Reggae’s promotion of big business encourages investment Interest rates lowered by Federal Reserve Board Revives confidence spending Productivity rose steadily Sustained during longest expansion in U. S. Story Inflation fell to a 30-year low Unemployment rate declined Bill Clinton, elected President, 1992 Takes credit for economic recovery “The American dream is in fact alive and well” Soaring U. S. Tock market- a sign of economic prosperity sass- Almost 50% of people investing Start up companies DOD Jones Average moves past 1000 mark Dramatic reduction in budget deficit Encouraged lower interest rates Economic expansion By 1998- U. S. Has budget surplus for the first time in 29 years $370 Billion Arguing begins about how best to use surplus funds Democrats favor using funds to bolster Social Security System Republicans, who control Congress, wanted a tax cut Ignored the reality that the National Debt is $5. 4 Trillion U. S. Companies begin merging into conglomerates Swallow smaller businesses Efficiency
Larger profits Consequences of mergers Lay offs of workers because of task/ Job overlay New Jobs often did not pay as well Economy begins to falter Alan Greenshank, Chair of Federal Reserve Board (1996) Cautions against “irrational exuberance” in the market Those making millions did not attend to the warning By 2000, stock market begins to slide Financial gains not in line with productivity Year ends with worst losses in decades Continues to fall into 2002 Millions lost in investments Growth rate begins to slow as investment declines Loss of confidence in market (particularly in high tech stocks) Recession begins in 000 Newly elected President George W. Bush Promotes a tax cut Skewed to favor wealthy Americans Failed to provide economic stimulus Contributed to economic decline Further undermines the stability Slumping economy grows into 2001 Unemployment increases Outsourcing moves U. S.
Jobs to overseas workers Confidence falls due to managerial, corporate fraud and greed Corporate greed blooms from deregulation of sass Take advantage of lax oversight policies Made huge, sometimes illegal, profits Enron Corporation, 2001 Bought and sold energy Filed for bankruptcy Accounting firm Arthur Anderson provided cover-up documents Faced indictment for fraud Corporate executives cash out stock for millions Employees unaware of catastrophe Prohibited from unloading stock Lost life savings, Jobs Enron not an anomaly- many companies falsify accounting bookkeeping Economy continued to be fragile over next few years By 2007, federal deficit reaches $9 Trillion Housing market collapses Risky mortgages lead to massive foreclosures Union memberships continue to fall Only 12% of all workers belong to unions Growth in public employee unions increases By sass, National Educational Association (NEE) has 2 Million members b).
Poverty And Homelessness About 1 in 10 Americans live below poverty line – 1990 Poverty increases by nearly 1 Million in 1998 Included 1 in 3 working Americans Department Of Agriculture reports 12 Million struggle with food poverty Record levels of Americans lack health insurance About in 2005 Urban American poverty Government programs unable to satisfy all needs Movement to suburbs reduced tax funding for services Gap between rich and poor increases significantly Stems from Reagan, Bush administration cut backs Decreases in government spending and elimination of social welfare programs Largest disparity between rich and poor since the Great Depression Minorities fared worse than whites Household wealth at 12 times greater than minorities Incomes fell for poor, rose for wealthy Gap continued to grow between whites and blacks Homelessness 6. 7 Million homeless in 1990 3. 5 Million will become homeless Reasons: Disturbed families Alcohol and drug abuses Health and learning problems For millions, homelessness a real threat c). Aging And Illness U. S. Population older than ever before People 65 and older account for 12% of population Steady advances in medical care increases life expectancy to 74 Many Americans Egan living healthy, productive lives into their ass Innovative medications open health conversations Vicarage- 1998 Helps men suffering from impotence People began discussing sexual health Reminiscent of birth control pill conversation Becomes fastest growing drug in history Mandatory retirement becomes a problem Age Discrimination In Employment Act- 1986 Prohibited age mandated retirement Created problems for younger workers Supreme Court ruling- 2005 Workers sue over reverse discrimination Found employees do not have to prove employers acted intentionally Political power of elderly becomes more visible Social Security poses problems to economy and the program Contributions necessary to keep program solvent Aging population meant longer term payments Issue: Payments exceeded revenues sass- Retirement ages increased along with taxes People questioned if Social Security could survive Costs of prescription drugs soared 2003- Congress passes a prescription drug bill it could not pay for up front Huge costs to U. S. ND dramatically increases national debt Illnesses Elderly increasingly suffer from Listener’s Disease Destroys mental and physical abilities Diagnosis is difficult and treatments cannot reverse disease Reagan began to suffer room Alchemies during office AIDS strikes young and old, from all backgrounds and sexual orientation (1981) U. S. And world begin to become decimated by the disease 2005- More than 40 Million living with HIVE Life expectancy falls nearly in half of Zanzibar (2005-2010) 2007- U. N. Reports number of cases declining Spread of AIDS encouraged through sexual experimentation Initially believed to only spread by homosexual intercourse or I. V. Rug use Quickly began to spread throughout heterosexual population AIDS became the leading cause of death for Americans, aged 25-44 500,000 deaths by 2005 More people began to “live with HIVE Improved drug therapies extend lives Reduced number of deaths A cure for AIDS/ HIVE remains unbound President Bush (2003) triples U. S. Commitment to $1 5 Billion Efforts to counter AIDS in Africa d). Minorities And Women Face The Twenty-First Century Americans fought for increased equality Reform efforts encountered resistance 1 a). African Americans: Home ownership and employment grows Violent crimes dropped 1997- 40% of blacks go to college Racism pervades in American society 1990- 50 years post- Brown versus Board Of Education Cincinnati schools greatly segregated in 2/2 of schools
Police brutality Racial profiling 2000 Census reveals the most racially and ethnically diverse America Many American neighborhoods continued to be segregated Affirmative Action Conservatives push back against perceived preferential treatment of groups by race and ethnicity Support ballot initiatives focused on repeal Proposition 209, California (1996) Prohibited use of gender, race when awarding contracts or admitting students to public colleges and universities Supreme Court prohibits colleges, universities from awarding scholarships to specific minorities (1995) 2003- University Of Michigan Affirmative action is acceptable Rejected admissions “point system” for undergraduate admissions 2007- Supreme Court is very conservative Rules public schools could not promote integration if taking student races into account After 50 years, Brown vs..
Board Of Education ended Booming Job market of sass develops better race relations Provides work opportunities Crime levels fall as black employment rises Blacks continue to have higher Jobless rates By mid-sass, evident American dream ended for blacks Particularly hard hit by decline in Union memberships Gap regress between black and white incomes Tensions persisted between races with discrimination Finding Jobs Police antagonism and profiling “It anti what it ought to be, but thank God it anti what it used to be” 1 b). Women Women made steady progress in previously closed professions In 2001, nearly 50% of law students are women Continued exclusion from top level positions By 2005, only 17% of corporate leaders are women Abortion remains a controversial issue Anti-abortion activists work to disrupt abortion clinics Picketed, frightened women and threatened doctors lives Killed doctors who performed abortions Dry. Barnett Sleeping, Buffalo, New York (1998)
Protested late term abortions called “partial birth abortions” Congress banned the procedures, Clinton vetoed twice 2003- Bush signs the measure 2007- Supreme Court upholds FDA approves the “Morning After Pill,” RI-J-486 Anti-abortionists Jump on this Work, unsuccessfully, for the elimination of the drug Women’s Movement brings changes Women hesitant to be associated with a radical movement Feminism still considered a fringe element Affected how women saw themselves Careers vs.. Motherhood debate lost importance Young women seemed to take the gain’s fought for and won by their mothers and randomness for granted Serious problems persisted through sass Women acting as single mothers rose by 25% Only 51% of American women live with a spouse Gender pay stops narrowing By 2005- women earn only 75 cents of every man’s dollar 1 c).
Latino: Pushed for greater equality Demographics change on their side (2000 Census) Latino population spread farther, faster than any other previous immigrant wave Rose by since 1990 46% of Latino own their own homes Still lags behind national number of 66% By 2003, Latino move past Blacks as largest minority group Experts predict that by 2100, 1 in 3 Americans would be Latino Sturdy middle class ivies Latino a voice in social, political affairs Increasingly influential public role Henry Concerns becomes Secretary Of Housing and Urban Development- 1993 Offered Penn becomes Secretary Of Transportation- 1992 California elects several Latino political figures Lieutenant Governor Speaker Of The House Mayor Of San Jose Loretta Sanchez elected to U. S.
House of Representatives Alberta Gonzales chosen for Bush White House counsel Played a major role advising Bush during his first term Became Attorney General during the second term Unemployment rose and fell during the sass Only 40% of unemployed were eligible for unemployment benefits Household incomes fell Latino begin to worry they may become permanently left underclass Enjoyed a growing impact on American culture Music Foods Spanish language becomes more common 1 d). Native Americans Smaller numbers resulted in less influence Only 1. 5% of U. S. Population (2000 Census) Manage to keep important causes before the public Continued legal efforts to regain land 1999- Federal government and Oneida Indians sue Demanded restitution for 270,000 acres they claimed State and local governments had illegally acquired Argued for warranted restitution 000- U. S. Overspent returned 84,000 acres in Northern Utah Had taken from the ate in 1916 Sought land to secure rights to valuable reserves of oil shale Energy Secretary, Bill Richardson- “Trying to do the right thing, returning the land to its rightful owners” Pressed for return of ancestors skeletal remains- successful Native American Graves Protection And Reparation Act- 1990 Skeletons, sacred objects flowed back to where they belonged 1997- Harvard’s Peabody Museum returns bones of 2000 Pueblo Indians Largest single return of these remains Native American women increasingly active in reform efforts Winnow Allude singled out by Time Magazine One of the “50 Most Promising Leaders Under 40” Environmental activist Honor The Earth fund and White Earth Land Recovery Project Serves as Ralph Nadir’s Vice Presidential running mate in 2000 Green Party ticket Many Native Americans continue to feel a sense of dislocation Sherman Alexei stories Lone Ranger And Ton In Heaven (1993) Symbolic gesture of apology Clinton Administration Bureau Of Indian Affairs celebrated its 75th.
Anniversary Kevin Grover, head of the agency Apologizes for the nation’s repressive treatment of Indians Comments on the loss of buffalo, alcoholism, cowardly killings el). Asian Americans Real success during sass 4% of national population Variety of culture, experiences, values Increasingly important impact on American society Great education successes Majority of students at prestigious universities Norman Y. Minute- Secretary of Commerce (2000) Economic conflict and social concerns Earn higher median incomes than whites Newcomers faced serious economic problems Many Americans see Asians as secretive, inscrutable “Simple stereotypes-” UCLA, Paul M. Eng If).
Gays Gays begin to see progress in the advancement of their goals 2000- The Big Three automakers offer healthcare to partners of their gay employees 465,000 people gain access to health insurance Vermont grants same sex civil union recognition- 2000 American Academy of Pediatricians- 2002 Announces support of gay/ lesbian adoption Broadened the definition 30-year anniversary parade to commemorate the 1969 Stonewall Inn riot Greenwich Village, New York More visible role of gays could be deadly Matthew Sheppard, student at University of Wyoming- 1998 Brutally beaten and tortured to death by 2 men troubled by his lifestyle 2004- Massachusetts Court rules gay marriage constitutional San Francisco permits gay marriage