Despite the foundations of a tentatively peaceful and profitable relationship between the United States and China through the Burlingame Treaty (1868), the Chinese Exclusion Act provoked a conflict between the two nations through the exclusive prohibition of immigration of the Chinese to the United States. Although a formal resolution to the conflict occurred with the appeal of the Chinese Exclusion Act and an official apology in 2006, a total compromise in American society is still not met, through the acts of racism evident in modern times. The first Asian immigrants to the United States were the Chinese, who mostly arrived in California during the 1840’s and 1850’s. There are numerous reasons for the increased immigration of the Chinese to the United States, such as recent political and economic collapses in China, as well as the famed 1849 Gold Rush. Initially, the Chinese were welcomed with the need for labor in the mines and the building of the transcontinental railroad. However, feelings of nativism arose soon after, where the Chinese, in particular, were scapegoated for the unemployment and financial struggles of white Americans, as well as generally being too peculiar or different in regard to their culture and language. Despite the social tensions in the United States between Chinese immigrants and white Americans, the American government and Qing China signed and ratified the Burlingame-Seward Treaty in 1868 and 1869 respectively, a show of friendly formal relations between the two nations. In the summer of 1877, white American politicians and labor leaders established the Workingmen’s Party in California, aiming to establish white superiority in the American workforce over the Chinese and bring about the increased economic opportunity by undermining the power of the wealthy elite in California. In 1882, the United States government passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, which was later renewed in 1892 and made permanent in 1902. The ratification of this piece of legislation prompted racial white violence and assault against Chinese immigrants, which peaked in 1885, and for immigrant cases to be excluded from judicial oversight. In May 1905, a mass meeting in San Francisco, California brought together the Japanese and Korean Exclusion League, also known as the Asiatic Exclusion, which aimed to bar Japanese and Korean immigrants from the United States in addition to the Chinese. This group obtained their goal in 1917, when Congress established an Asiatic Barred Zone, within the 1917 Immigration Act. The Burlingame Treaty was an ultimately unsuccessful attempt at peaceful relations in the rise of conflict between the United States and China. The Burlingame-Seward Treaty was an expansion of the Treaty of Tianjin (1858), which was the prior unequal treaty between the two nations. In an attempt to establish the United States as a power in the East, lawyer and U.S. minister to China Anson Burlingame, and Secretary of State William Seward negotiated a treaty to revise and expand the articles established in the Treaty of Tianjin. The Treaty of Tianjin coincided with establishing unequal treaties and “spheres of influence” in China. But now, the Burlingame Treaty protected Chinese commerce and trading rights, allowed for Chinese immigration, and set China as the United States’s primary trading partner. The numerous articles and measure within this treaty reinforced the principle of equality between the two nations. Despite this image of a peaceful, friendly, and stable relationship between China and the United States, this pre-compromise was short-lived and unsuccessful in the long-run. The increasing anti-Chinese sentiment in the United States was something industrial leaders and politicians could no longer afford to ignore, and some industrialists and politicians many times reinforced anti-Chinese sentiments. Despite the political and economic attempt at peaceful relations, sentiment among Americans citizens did not follow the same line of thought. The rise of a new treaty signed in 1880 that revised the Burlingame agreement and the later ratification of the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882 undermined the peace-making attempt of the original Burlingame treaty, eliminating free immigration clauses altogether. The conflict between the United States and China with the ratification of the Chinese Exclusion Act because China was angered by the fact that only the Chinese were not allowed to immigrate to the United States. The Chinese Exclusion Act was the first instance in the history of the United States that placed a restriction on immigration policy specific to only a certain ethnic group. The Chinese were definitely not pleased that they were the sole ethnic group not allowed in the United States out of the many nationalities of the world, especially when China assumed their friendly relationship through the Burlingame Treaty justified their ability to immigrate to America. From the American perspective, strong anti-Chinese sentiments were still very present in American society, cultivated by the long history of American prejudice and racism. Senator George Hoar described the phenomenon as the “legalization of racial discrimination” against the Chinese through the strong resentment of the Chinese. Furthermore, the denial of minority rights to immigration and citizenship garnered increased tension between the two countries, the future generations of Chinese Americans being discriminated against, and resulting in the Asian-American movement to influence social reform. The Chinese Exclusion Act was not rendered void until much later when an overall quota system on immigration was established in 1943, drawing out the period of conflict between the two nations and leaving an unstable foundation for future diplomatic relations. The Quota system established in 1943 ended the specified exclusion of the Chinese but still did not establish a complete resolution. There still remained a limit on the number of Chinese immigrants, and Asian immigrants in general, and what was especially rage-inducing was the comparison of the numbers of immigrants allowed from Asia and Europe, Europe’s limits being significantly less restricting. The overall limit on immigration in general only really changed with the Immigration and Nationality Act in 1965, where immigration was no longer limited by ethnicity. Yet this act only “officially” removed the limitations on immigration, where Asian immigrants were still rejected in American society, as seen by the numerous acts of racism against Asian-Americans throughout the American history of the 1900’s and early 2000’s. The Chinese American population and the Asian American population in general still face racial discrimination, albeit its decreasing numbers of incidents in recent years.