By and large talking, the cordial reception industry competes on a planetary footing by supplying nutrient and drinks services every bit good as adjustments for tourers and travellers.
For case, harmonizing to Lucas, “ The term cordial reception industry serves as an overarching label for concerns whose primary intent is to offer nutrient, drink and adjustment for sale on a commercial footing ” ( 2003:3 ) . By contrast, cordial reception services are associated activities that take topographic point within the cordial reception industry which are provided within different sections of the market place. Such cordial reception activities are chiefly involved with supplying nutrient and drink services for a broad scope of institutional operations including educational installations such as colleges and universities, rider air hose bearers, health care and long-run attention installations every bit good as penitentiaries and gaols ( Lucas 2003 ) . For the intents of this survey, the focal point will be on the cordial reception industry and hotels in general and on Motel 6 in peculiar.1.2 Rationale of the Study. Because the cordial reception industry is an built-in portion of the travel and touristry industry, an economic environment that adversely affects the latter will besides hold an inauspicious impact on the former. The ongoing planetary economic downswing has created the demand for companies viing in the cordial reception industry to develop a competitory advantage to stay feasible, and motivated employees represent one such competitory advantage.
For illustration, Umashanker and Kulkarni emphasize that, “ It is a universally known and well-documented fact that when we talk of client satisfaction it takes effectual and motivated service ( brush ) forces at the bringing terminal to do the difference ” ( 2002:31 ) .In fact, a extremely motivated work force is an absolute necessity for organisations viing in the cordial reception industry for without this factor steadfastly in topographic point, nil else that the organisation does will do any difference in the long tally. In this respect, Umashanker and Kulkarni add that, “ All the merchandise design, operation planning and other associated attempts will come to a nil if the bringing terminal forces fail. Gaining net incomes through presenting client satisfaction is one of the philosophical underpinnings of service concerns ” ( 2002:31 ) . Therefore, placing chances for organisations viing in the cordial reception industry to accomplish a competitory advantage through a more motivated work force represents a timely and of import endeavor, and these factors are described farther below.
1.3 Purposes and Aims. The purpose of this survey was to place motive system that could be used by companies viing in the cordial reception industry to accomplish a competitory advantage. In support of this overarching purpose, the survey was guided by three aims as follows:1.
3.1 To present a comprehensive reappraisal of the literature refering employee motive in general and employee motive in the cordial reception industry in peculiar ;1.3.2 To supply a instance survey of a cordial reception organisation to place what best patterns are available for employee motive that could be used by likewise situated companies viing in the cordial reception industry ; and,1.3.3 Based on a synthesis of the literature reappraisal and instance survey findings, to supply a series of recommendations for actuating employees in cordial reception organisations.2.
0 Literature Review2.1 Definitions and Concepts.2.
1.1 An Employer ‘s Perspective. Hospitality organisations are presently faced with some ferocious competition, and some companies might hold few resources available to give to lucubrate employee motive strategies ( Brody, Lane & A ; Steed 2004 ) . Harmonizing to Brody and his associates, “ Full-service hotels are in ferocious competition with suite and economic system hotels for concern travellers ” ( 2004:324 ) .
From the employer ‘s position, employees represent one of the best resources available for developing and prolonging a competitory advantage in such a extremely competitory environment. For case, Chen, Niu, Wang, Yang and Tsaur emphasize that, “ An of import avenue for client value creative activity is the interaction between client contact employees and clients ” ( 2009:40 ) . One of the taking economic system hotel ironss that has taken this advice to bosom is Motel 6, which forms the footing for the instance survey developed and discussed farther below.2.1.2 An Employee ‘s Perspective. The work force of the twenty-first century has a figure of different outlooks from those that existed merely a few decennaries ago. During the mid-20th century, for illustration, people could moderately anticipate to fall in a company at the entry degree, work difficult and be rewarded with a series of publicities and raises until retirement.
In other words, there was an mute but widely recognized societal contract that meant if people were loyal and dedicated to a company, the company would return the favour by supplying lifetime confidences of employment and retirement benefits when they had successfully completed the needed sum of clip on the occupation. By crisp contrast, Spillane emphasizes that today, “ Peoples are less and less certain about what ‘work ‘ truly agencies. Their outlooks of work, particularly acquiring it and basking it, are now affairs of both deep anxiousness and mundane world ” ( 2001:16 ) . Besides a displacement in the aforesaid societal contract, Spillane suggests that there are some other of import grounds for this alteration in how people view their occupations. Harmonizing to Spillane, “ There are high unemployment rates in industrialised societies. For many people in modern society, work is no longer something that happens in a fixed topographic point during a fixed unit of clip, bring forthing a fixed end product and wages ” ( 2001:17 ) .
This means that many people will likely hold more than one occupation during their professional callings, and probably many more than that, but there is a high monetary value to be paid for such occupation mobility for both employees and employers. For employees, altering occupations means get downing all over once more in set uping credibleness and trust with a new employer, and this normally takes a batch of clip. In add-on, even if people are extremely adept in their professions, every organisation is different and “ larning the ropes ” at new topographic points of employment can besides necessitate a great trade of clip and can be a nerve-racking procedure. For employers, the high costs of enrolling and developing new employees are good established, doing occupation mobility a ambitious facet of developing motivational tools in any workplace. The high costs of high turnover rates among employees include, but are surely non restricted to, the costs of enlisting, new employee preparation and orientation, every bit good as a period of occupation orientation in which new employees are typically non every bit efficient as more experient employees ( Mccaughey & A ; Bruning 2005 ) .In this respect, Spillane reports that there are two cardinal facets of occupation satisfaction that by and large apply to any workplace scene:Experienced Meaningfulness.
The single must comprehend his or her work as worthwhile or of import by some system of values he or she accepts ; and,Knowledge of Results. The worker must be able to find, on some regular footing, whether or non the results of his or her work are satisfactory ( 2001:17 ) .In order to develop motivational enterprises that can hold a important consequence on this two cardinal facets of occupation satisfaction, employees must hold their occupations expanded along the undermentioned five dimensions:Skill Variety.
The grade to which a occupation requires the worker to execute activities that dispute his or her accomplishments and abilities.Task Identity. The grade to which the occupation requires finishing a whole and identifiable piece of work — making a occupation from get downing to stop with a seeable result.Undertaking Significance. The grade to which a occupation has a significant and perceivable impact on the lives of other people, whether in the immediate organisation or the universe at big.
Autonomy. The grade to which the occupation gives the worker freedom, independency and discretion in scheduling work and finding how he or she will transport it out.Feedback.
The grade to which a worker, in transporting out the work activities required by the occupation, gets information about the effectivity of his or her attempts ( Spillane 2001:17 ) .This degree of occupation enlargement, though, can be a ambitious endeavor even under the best of fortunes, but the procedure is particularly hard during periods of high occupation mobility and economic downswing when people may non remain at a occupation long plenty ( or be allowed to remain at a occupation long plenty ) for their occupations to make anything but evaporate from underneath them during periods of economic downswing.2.1.3 Social Behaviour.
Because client satisfaction is of primary importance in the cordial reception industry, the mode in which infirmary industry employees behave on the occupation can hold a make-or-break consequence on a company. In this respect, Liu and Chen emphasize that, “ Within service organisations, frontline employees and supervisors are regarded as the show windows of the company ‘s client orientation. They are the direct participants in the execution of this selling construct, because the ‘personal constituent of services is frequently the primary determiner of client overall satisfaction ” ( 2006:478 ) .2.2 Review of Existing Industry Research Articles.2.2.1 Industry Context.
In any industry, there are some general attacks that can be used for employee motive including the followers.Positive reinforcement/high outlooks ;Effective subject and penalty ;Treating people reasonably ;Satisfying employees demands ;Puting work related ends ;Restructuring occupations ; and,Base wagess on occupation public presentation ( Employee Motivation: Theory and Practice 2010 ) .The wagess that relate to occupation public presentation typically include wage and benefits. Harmonizing to Chonko and Roberts, “ Of all the many belongingss that characterize work in formal organisations, wage is one of the most of import.
Pay has been found to act upon important organisational behaviour variables, including turnover ” ( 1996:154 ) . As celebrated above, though, a figure of other motivational factors can be used depending on the wants and demands of the employees that are involved. For illustration, harmonizing to Neff ( 2002 ) , genuinely effectual employee motive and satisfaction plans require organisations to utilize more than merely pay and benefits because different people view personal success in the workplace in immensely different ways. In this respect, Neff emphasizes that, “ Successful companies know that motivated, satisfied employees increase client satisfaction and net income borders. Because of the nexus between employee satisfaction and client satisfaction, companies have implemented an array of schemes to assist increase employees ‘ internal motive ” ( 2002:386 ) .Therefore, within the predating wide attacks, there exists a broad scope of motivational tools and techniques that can be used to good consequence depending on economic and industry context, and these issues are discussed farther below.2.2.
2 Economic Context. Even the most expeditiously operated cordial reception organisation will experience the effects of an economic downswing, and the on-going planetary economic crisis has affected the travel and touristry industry, and by extension, the cordial reception industry every bit good ( Grist 2009 ) . Consequently, cordial reception organisations that have weathered this economic storm and even prospered merit a closer expression by companies seeking to place ways they can make the same, and Motel 6 represents merely such an endeavor as discussed farther below.2.3 Research Company Background.
Motel 6 ( hereinafter instead “ the company ” ) was established in 1962 in Santa Barbara, California and has grown to include more than one 1000 hotels with more than 105,000 suites ( Motel 6 Corporate Profile 2010 ) . The company maintains corporate offices in Carrollton, Texas every bit good as Columbus, Ohio ( Career Opportunities 2010 ) . The corporate profile for the company besides notes that, “ Part of the Accor household, Motel 6 is the largest owned and operated hotel concatenation in North America. Accor is the largest hotel operator in the universe with about 4,100 hotels in 90 states ” ( Motel 6 Corporate Profile 2010:2 ) .
Harmonizing to the company ‘s promotional literature maintained under “ Career Opportunities, ” Motel 6 emphasizes that this corporation “ realizes that holding the right people is really of import in bring forthing our merchandise — good managed belongingss with satisfied clients. Therefore, our end is to supply an environment that attracts, develops and retains talented self-starters who want to be portion of a taking organisation in budget housing ” ( 2010:1 ) . Interestingly, although the Motel 6 hotel concatenation originally did non offer franchises for investors, the corporation has ever provided its 100s of Motel 6 belongingss in the United States with a centralized hazard direction program as a cost economy step ( Johnson & A ; Oshins 1999 ) . Get downing in 1996, though, the company initiated its franchise plan and there are presently more than 380 franchised locations scattered across the state with more being planned every twenty-four hours ( About Motel 6 2010 ) , with 34 franchises being opened in the first half of 2010 alone ( Accor North America Opens 34 Franchise Locations 2010 ) .Although the adjustments at Motel 6 have improved significantly since Kay observed, “ Motel 6 units are non good hotels ” ( 1995:134 ) , the organisation continues to bear down far less than many of its rivals, thereby doing them “ good hotels for $ 30 per dark, ” and the organisation remains “ a extremely effectual organisation ” ( Kay 1995:134 ) . Given that Motel 6 non merely survived this early perceptual experience of their adjustments every bit good as the economic downswing that has created widespread concern throughout the cordial reception industry, they must be making something right.
In this respect, Kay ( 1995 ) suggests that while Motel 6 ‘s upper-end rivals try to accomplish a competitory advantage based on their repute for the superior quality of their adjustments and service, Motel 6 has sought to accomplish a “ value for money ” repute that has served the company good over the old ages. In fact, many luxury hotel ironss are extremely loath to set up their installations anyplace near Motel 6 locations because of the message that the Motel 6 trade name communicates: “ This is an country suited to budget motels ” ( Merrill & A ; Smith 2007:1849 ) .Clearly, Motel 6 has carved out a really big niche for itself in the economic system hotel section of the cordial reception industry, but pulling and retaining high quality, qualified employees when there is such a focal point on economic system represents a important challenge. Therefore, Motel 6 topographic points a high value on guaranting occupation satisfaction among the employees it does enroll. While the demand for occupation enlargement remains an indispensable portion of occupation satisfaction in any organisation, so excessively is the demand for supplying employees at all degrees with regard and acknowledgment for superior public presentation. This component of occupation satisfaction is besides emphasized by Motel 6 which adds in its promotional literature, “ We strive to keep a civilization that treats employees with regard and grasp for their parts. The company is besides committed to long-standing values including: client service, teamwork, diverseness, acknowledgment, communications, ethical behaviour and chance for growing and development ( Careers 2010:2 ) .When resources for employee motive enterprises are scarce as is the instance with Motel 6 and its accent on cost efficiency, Royle and Towers ( 2006 ) stress that strong leading is needed at all degrees within the organisation, but with a specific focal point on supplying employees with regard, self-respect and the types of wagess they will see as being commensurate with their attempts every bit good as a workplace environment that Fosters common regard, a procedure that requires “ individualised employee dealingss ” ( 2002:67 ) .
This observation means that different motivational plans might be used in the more than 1,000 different hotels maintained in the United States entirely by Motel 6, and these motivational plans would all necessitate careful consideration of the potentially powerful cross-cultural effects that might be in different parts of the state.Furthermore, the 100s of entrepreneurial franchisees that have invested their ain resources in a Motel 6, or possibly more than one motel, will hold a vested involvement in guaranting that their employees are extremely motivated to present the type of service that brings clients back and provides the viva-voce testimonies that are the lifeblood of any industry. This means that there is a possible for more than a big figure of different motivational attacks to be used within the corporate motel concatenation every bit good as within the franchisees, but there is an overruling accent throughout the Motel 6 organisation on supplying a workplace that provides their employees with the regard and chances for growing that are the most indispensable elements of any motivational enterprise.Despite the figure of different motivational attacks that may be in topographic point at any given Motel 6 installation, the company offers a standardised benefit bundle for all of its employees, including one of the best benefit bundle available in the hotel industry today as shown in Table 1 below.
Table 1Palingenesis of Motel 6 Employee Benefit PackagesEmployee CategoryList of BenefitsAll Motel 6 Employees* Medical Plan* Vision Plan* Dental Plan* Company Paid Life and AD & A ; D Insurance* Supplemental Life & A ; AD & A ; D Insurance* 401 ( K )* Vacation ( Consistent with the Motel 6 policy )* Credit Union* Accor Card ( After one twelvemonth of service employees are eligible to have 50 % off room rates )Extra Benefits for General Managers Merely* Business Travel Accident Insurance* Short Term Disability* Long Term Disability* Performance Bonuss* Housing ( One sleeping room flat provided with all public-service corporations paid except personal long distance telephone charges )Extra Benefits for Area Managers Merely* Business Travel Accident Insurance* Short Term Disability* Long Term Disability* Performance Bonuss* Company Car ( from the approved company list ) . This besides includes regular care and care of the company auto.Beginning: Career Opportunities 2010As can be seen from the list in Table 1 above, all employees at Motel 6 have an inducement to stay on the occupation for at least a twelvemonth by virtuousness of the Accor Card that provides them with a 50 per centum price reduction on Motel 6 room rates across the state and in abroad installations as good, and general and country directors have a powerful inducement to actuate their employees because of the public presentation fillips that are available for top performing artists in the organisation.
3.0 Methodology.This survey used a assorted methodological analysis dwelling of a reappraisal of the relevant literature together with a instance survey of Motel 6. This assorted methodological analysis is extremely consistent with a figure of research workers who cite the benefits of utilizing a instance survey attack to larn more about a given subject in-depth ( Wood & A ; Ellis 2003 ; Gratton & A ; Jones 2003 ) . For case, harmonizing to Neuman, the instance survey attack is “ research in which 1 surveies a few people or instances in great item ” ( 2003:530 ) . Likewise, Zikmund reports that the instance survey method is “ an explorative research technique that intensively investigates one or a few state of affairss similar to the research worker ‘s job state of affairs ” ( 2000:722 ) . One of the chief advantages of utilizing a instance survey for this survey was that motivational factors in the cordial reception industry could be examined closely and a focal point on a given corporation, in this instance Motel 6, could be developed, an attack that is besides consistent with the counsel provided by Leedy ( 1997 ) and Yin ( 2003 ) .4.
0 Decisions and Recommendations4.1 Conclusions. Take together, the research was consistent in demoing that people who work in the cordial reception industry are no different from those in any other industry. All people appear to desire and necessitate acknowledgment for the work they do and to have wagess that are commensurate with their attempts. In add-on, everyone wants the chance to gain more money and for many people, this means traveling up the corporate ladder and presuming the extra duties that go hand-in-hand with gaining regular rises and fillips.
In this respect, Motel 6 was shown to hold a comprehensive benefit bundle plan in topographic point for all of its employees, with inducements available to promote new hires to stay on the occupation for at least a twelvemonth to measure up for an Accor Card that entitles them to half off any of the concatenation ‘s 4,100 installations around the universe.While there was no specific wage agendas available for Motel 6 that could be compared with likewise situated budget hotel ironss, it is sensible to reason that the wage offered by the organisation is competitory based on the part in which they operate given the company ‘s dramatic growing rate in recent old ages, a procedure that would probably non hold been possible without a work force that was motivated to present the type of client service that is indispensable to success in the cordial reception industry.4.2 Recommendations. Based on the reappraisal of the literature and the instance survey of Motel 6, the undermentioned recommendations are provided:Organizations viing in the cordial reception industry should sporadically reexamine their current motivational enterprises to guarantee they are accomplishing the coveted ends and results ;Because wage and benefits represent merely a portion of an overall motivational plan, directors should place what employees want and need and seek to cut down that spread in cost-efficient ways ;Organizations viing in the cordial reception industry should reexamine the best patterns that are in topographic point at Motel 6 and other successful corporations to find if any of the motivational attacks in topographic point at these companies can profit them every bit good ; and,Establish prosodies by which the effectivity of any motivational plan can be measured to place extra chances for polish and betterment.