This literature review began with the research question ” Can Poverty effect the development of the students I teach? I have taught in the private and public schools and I have noticed that the behavior and disabilities of the two are somewhat efferent. As a teacher, I am frustrated to have most of my students that I teach score so poorly on the achievement test. Most of the students have behavioral issues that cause them to have difficulties in their learning stages. During faculty meetings are my most dreaded times during the school year. The principal would at some time blame my grade level for scoring the lowest of the school.I knew that I had done my best but based on this research I now see that the principal herself needed to do some research as I did to see the reason why they continue to score the way they did.
Sometimes I wonder if anything that I have taught would positively impact their future behaviors. Deep down I know all four teachers on that grade level could not all be failing to teach the children. At times I realize that the blame has to be on teachers. I wished that those in authority would acknowledge they should be held accountable for the failure of the children.
I have taught for some fourteen years in the public sector.I taught on grade level of 1 through 6. I have taught the sixth grade for six of those years and I am currently assigned there again this school year.
I am the only teacher in that grade level that hey have never moved for the past six years. So when the authorities blame that team for not making the annual yearly progress, the fingers need to point to the other direction. I know that I am unable to change people so I try as best to change how I think about myself During those years, I have had some of the most challenging students, and I at times, it seems as though they were deliberately placed in my class.This school year, I am under a new principal and have the smallest class on my grade level, but after surveying the students and checking their cumulative records I legalize that I was given the majority of the under achievers from the previous school year. I have attended many professional development seminars on instructing the students that a deficient in their reading abilities and behavior. I have tried many behavior modification strategies and techniques so as to reach those that seem as though they have the right to misbehave. I will continue to try my best.The question remains: Can poverty affect a child’s development? POVERTY What is poverty? Poverty is the state of one who lacks a substantial amount or resources ( Merriam Online Dictionary, 2013).
Poverty is further defined as “the state of being poor”. Murmur’s (2011) comprehensive review stated that the number of children living in poverty has increased by 21% and the recent economic down turn shows that 14 million children will be affected. Many empirical studies that preempted her study found general trends ( Berkeley, Gaylord, Linden, 2011).Some studies that specifically employed the research on poverty among the African American (Hernandez and Kennedy, 2010). By reviewing these studies, one can find that poverty is associated with the development of the child ( Amatol& Maynard 2007;Rose 2009; Hall 2011). The authors( Maxim, Lois, Kilo, Wang, Noel, Christensen, 2013) explain that there are few resources to meet the human needs of students in poverty. This is the most challenging aspect of families in poverty, as malnutrition has myriad effects.The emerging field of child development and social policy, two of the oldest concerns involved (a) how poverty and social deprivation influences children’s development and (b) how programs and policies can ameliorate the effects of poverty on children’s development.
Indeed, it could be argued that these twin concerns were defining features of the birth. Further studies reflect that poverty in the United States are of European ancestry. African American and Latino children are much more likely than other groups to live in poverty.Furthermore, African American and Puerco Rican children are more likely to experience persistent poverty and. If poor to live in isolated poor urban neighborhoods where institutional supports for families and children are relatively scarce and threats to positive growth and development are thought to be abundant.
CHILD DEVELOPMENT There is a growing consensus that poverty affects the development of children. In fact the studies suggest that poverty creates an ecological context that affects individuals’ growth and development Necks & Mayer, 1990; Elevenths & Brooks- Gun,2000).Research further revealed that the children living in poverty frequently face socioeconomic obstacles preventing them from having appropriate opportunities for development of the brain ( Misery& Woodlots, 2011).
When basic needs, such as sleep and nutrition, are not met, students cannot function at the level needed to reach their potential. Recent research suggests that economic deprivation s most harmful to a child’s chances for achievement when it occurs early in the child’s life ( Brooks-Gun. , Duncan, G. , & Baber, J.
L. Des. ). (1997). Although a number of recent studies have sought to identify key factors (Hay & Halberds, 2013) that are associated with the child development are tied to poverty. Recent studies have shown that living in an impoverished condition during the most formative years of a child’s life can cause neurological changes in the hippopotamus portion of the brain, which is involved in the cognitive development of the student. This change affects he memory ability, which manifests itself as a learning disability (Ryan, 2013).According to this view, individual characteristics developed during childhood affect later instrumental and social success and these evolving contexts influence later behaviors and the development of the next generation of children.
Support for this perspective comes from several studies, including one by (Sheffield et al. 2011) using data from our ongoing 3-generation study in Iowa. They found that personality development during adolescence affected later socioeconomic success and family functioning during the adult years.
Several studies have found that differences in the home learning environments of higher- and lower-income children account for up to half of the effect of income on the cognitive development of preschool children and between one-quarter and one-third of the effect of income on the achievement scores of elementary school children (Brooks-Gun & Duncan,1997) Theorists ( Egregious , Korean, Hillier , 1994) review studies that have documented the adverse impact of young age of mother on cognitive and constitutional development of children.Because teen mother are disproportionately poor, the iterative provides insights about the effects of poverty on children’s development. Children of young mothers appear to suffer from cognitive and constitutional disadvantages and are at a higher risk of poor school achievement than children of older mothers. The review also indicated that poor child health, malnutrition, and adverse infant health outcomes may in part mediate the relationship between poverty and child development.Wilson (1981) concluded that, although the results indicate that there is evidence that even moderate chronic malnutrition is associated with lower scores on test of cognitive functioning.
They have also included reviews on the relation between poverty, birth weight and cognitive development in both developed and developing country population. DEFINITIONS OF AT RISK The term “at risk” means a student who, by virtue of their circumstances, is statistically more likely than others to fail academically.Those determining the criteria of at-risk status often focus on ethnic minorities, those who are academically disadvantaged, those who are disabled, those who are characterized by low socioeconomic status and students on a probationary status over past behavioral issues ( Merriam Webster Online Dictionary, 2013). The purpose of early research on exposure to childhood risk factors was to understand how singular risk factors affected development.Experimental research conducted by ( Gleason, 2010) found that historically, low-income students as a group have performed less well than high- income students on most measures of academic success?including standardized test scores, grades, high school completion rates, and college enrollment and completion rates. Countless studies have documented these disparities and investigated the many underlying reasons for them. But no research had hectically investigated whether these income-related achievement gaps have narrowed or widened over time.
Through my life Journey I have come to realize that it’s not what you do, it is how you do it. I will continue to try to bring out the best in the students that are placed in my care. During the faculty meetings I dreaded attending for the fear that I would Just lose my respect for those in authority. Although I came close a couple of times to Just walking out of those empty and meaningless meetings I kept my composure knowing that God was going to separate us. I know that those in authority were Just ignorant o the fact that they need to address what was really causing the students to score so poorly.I have taught in both world so I have a fair amount of experience in recognizing that poverty does play a role in the development of children. A key protective belief is that there are some things over which I have no control. No matter how educated as an educator, I can only do so much to help students who are orchestrated by God to be in my care.
I will continue my quest to help the children no matter the grade level.