Disability and Child

1. 1 Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth to 19 years. Area of development | 0-1 year | 2-4 years | Physical | Physical development is usually very rapid. At birth babies depend on reflexes for movements so they can feed, or grasp a dummy and can kick their arms and legs by the age of one they have much more control over their bodies. They are learning to crawl, bum shuffle, pulling and pushing on things and trying to stand and walk holding on to thing. | Between one and two years the child will begin to walk unaided they will start toilet training and wash their own hands and face.

Begin to enjoy imaginative role play. | Communication | Babies recognise familiar voices at this stage such as the voice of their parents they will stop crying when they hear them. Around the age of 3 months they start to make cooing noises and will also start turning their heads to sounds and movement. | Start to imitate what others are saying and answer to their own name. Be able to join in simple nursery rhymes enjoy books and story’s they begin to use more adult forms of speech using short sentences. | Intellectual/ cognitive | Babies recognise their parents and bond with them.

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They will blink/twitch if they are startled by loud noises. Put things in their mouth. Respond to bright colours and lights. | Recognise pictures and books. Match shapes with other objects recognise colours use scissors to cut things out. Point to different parts of the body. Imitate other adults and children. Concentrate for longer. Start to show awareness of right from wrong. | Social/emotional/ behavioural | When babies are born they cry to communicate most of their needs because they are hungry/ tired. As they get a little older they accept feeding/sleeping.

They have likes and dislikes and throw a tantrums when they can not have it their way. They enjoy having cuddles with parents/siblings. | Play with friends and socialise through play. Enjoy having some responsibilities e. g. classroom helper. Fall out with friends easily but forgive quickly. Become settled at school without parents/carers. | Unit 331 p2 Sarah Kennedy Moral | Babies do not understand right from wrong. They show their happy by smiling/laughing when comfortable/safe and by crying when they are upset/distressed.

By the age of one they they start understanding no but still don’t understand right from wrong. | Children are aware of the roles of adults e. g. teachers/parents (they set the boundaries and have authority) they do understand the word no but sometimes will choose not to accept it. They don’t understand consequences and do not fully understand the potential of right from wrong. | Area of development | 4-7 years | 7-12 years | Physical | Their mobility skills are more advanced when they run/jump They will start getting dressed/undressed more co-operatively with less assistance.

They will be able to hold a pencil and have better control. Copy letters, numbers and shapes. Become more confident playing outside jumping from heights, riding a bike getting involved in team games races/ football. | Physical changes in their body shape they grow taller/thinner girls begin to show signs of puberty. They may have hobbies and interests football/dancing.

They begin to recognise their own identity’s. | Communication | Talk more fluently using sentences and can answer questions independently. They listen to and can follow simple instructions and can deliver verbal messages.

Their early reading skills develop and they show interest in more complex books. Become very inquisitive and ask lots of questions. | Their communication skills have flourished they can talk to adults on a more mature level. Their reading and writing skills become much more advanced joining handwriting and having some understanding of punctuation. They can also gather information from dictionary’s, encyclopedias and researching the internet. | Intellectual/ cognitive | Children understand daily routine experiment with colours shapes and texture.

They can recall simple sequence remember songs/read books. | Can understand conversations and can talk through problems and resolve them. Enjoy playing board games with rules and are interested in more complex construction activities like complex Lego. And are able to keep themselves occupied for a period of time. |

Social/emotional/ behavioural | Enjoy playing with children their own age. They are aware of others feelings and will comfort them when upset or unwell. They may copy unwanted | Children are aware of the wider environment/community e. g. animals, plants, weather and different nationality’s, religions.

They can be unsure and anxious about upcoming transitions e. g. | Unit 331 P3 | behaviour like biting/swearing. Change mood suddenly from happy to sad. Could start to lose confidence if they feel they have failed. | secondary school this could change their behaviour/attitude and could even get emotional. They become less concerned about advice and approval from an adults and become more concerned about what their friends think. | Moral | Children start to understand and use rules at school/home.

They think of others and are always seeking adult approval. | They are fully aware of rules and boundaries and will inform an adult if the rules are broken and know the consequences of their own behaviour. | Area of development | 12-16 years | 16-19 years | Physical | Physical development is different for each individual some children may just be beginning to mature others may have reached their full physical maturity. Boys begin puberty around this age group where many girls would have completed the process and have regular periods.

| Young people become adults girls have reached full maturity but boys will continue to mature until their mid 20’s both boys and girls have sexual feelings. | Communication | They are more intelligent with their vocabulary and can understand some coded language. Share ideas with others and use their knowledge to contact people by phone and emails. | Have very good communication skills and can hold a serious conversation with family/friends about college and work prospects. | Intellectual | Know the difference between real and imaginary. Can read more complex text and understand abstract maths and science.

They develop more creative skills and abilities. can reason and find a middle ground to problems. | This is the time they leave school and will be making choices about what paths to take in life e. g. work/university they will concentrate on their strengths and continue to progress in developing these as they move on in life. | Social/emotional/ behaviour | They can have severe changes in there attitude due to hormone changes their bodies will become adult like but will still need guidance. They will want to become independent but may still have childish outbursts and may struggle to cope in general.

| Even though they have reached adulthood they will seek advice and guidance from other adults. Individuals will differ in emotional maturity and will interact with others in different ways. They will also lack experience but will gain this as they go through the path of life. | Unit 331 p4 Moral | They understand that boundaries are set for everyone to comply to so all children are treated fairly. | Fully understand about rights and wrongs and consequences of actions. | 1. 2 Explain the difference between sequence of development and rate of development Why is the difference important?

Written Statement Each child is different and will develop at their own rate the sequence is the usual order of development e. g. a baby will start with rolling over, sitting up, crawling then walking even though some steps may be missed out the development still proceeds in an expected pattern. Rate is the speed at which development happens e. g. child A may be walking at 10 months unaided child B may not walk until he is 17 months. The difference is important so we can recognise where the children need help and if they may be at risk of having a special educational need.

Also teaching staff can plan activities accordingly for the children who are at different rates of development. Outcome 2 2. 1 Personal factors | Give one example of how this factor might influence child and young persons development | Health status | A child who is in poor health this could restrict areas of their development e. g. if a child has chronic lung disease/ asthma they may not be able to run about and be as active as their peers. This would have an impact on their physical development it may also have affect on their emotional/social development depending on the severity of their health status.

It is important all adults within the school are aware of these conditions so we can support the child and include them as much as possible. | Disability | A child in a wheelchair would find it difficult to do many activities especially those that are physical. Gross motor skills would be at a less developed rate than their peers and their fine motor skills would be affected significantly if the child a very little or no control over their limbs. | Sensory impairment | A child with an air lip could struggle with their speech/communication skills and may lack in confidence and not want to join in with others and become withdrawn.

And would need support from other professionals such as speech therapists/ physio therapists. | Learning difficulties | A child with learning difficulties would suffer in certain areas of development and could develop low self esteem and get frustrated by not being able to do something such as a simple numeracy/literacy test or read a book. All children with learning difficulties should be encouraged to develop in all areas. Teaching staff will be given advice from other professionals on how to meet their needs. |

Unit 331 p5 2. 2 External factors | |

Poverty and deprivation | A child from a poor family tends to perform less and is less likely to achieve as parents find it difficult to meet the child’s educational needs which will have an impact on the child’s development due to lack of resources pens,books, the child may lack in confidence and have low self esteem they may even feel isolated if there is a dressing up day at school or a school trip and they cannot take part due to lack of funds from the family home all these things will make it difficult for the to respond in different situation.

| Family environment/ background | There are so many different circumstances that go on in families that could have an impact on the child’s development in all areas. These include family separation, job loss, alcohol/drug abuse, neglect or the death of a loved one. A child would be very vulnerable in any of these situations and would be emotional have lack of confidence it could result in behavioural issues. If a child showed any signs to any of these situations it would be dealt with straight away and other professionals would have to be involved. Then the child would be protected and the family would get support.

| Personal choices | Choices in a child’s life are vital as they grow they decide on friendships, extra curricular activities, diets. An adult should raise awareness of obesity, physical exercise, sexual transmitted diseases, drugs and so on. They may need advice from adults to help them make the right choices. | Looked after/care status | These children may regularly get moved around and could find it difficult to make positive relationships it could affect their development in different ways socially they may not be able to make friends and could develop behavioural issues.

However they will have regular meetings with professionals to make sure they are meeting the expected levels of progress. If there are any issue these are dealt with immediately and appropriately. | Education | A child may not have attended a playgroup/nursery before they started in reception class due to moving from a different country where education does not start in the first stages of early years so this would affect the child’s development and set them back from the other children. In this sort of situation the child would have additional support until they become settled in the school environment.

| Written Statement 2. 3 Explain how theories of development and frameworks to support development influence current practise There has been several theories of development and most of them influence the work we do with our children today. Many psychologists have different views on how children learn some say a child’s ability to learn is natural whilst others say it depends on what opportunities the child is given from their earliest years. This is known as the nature versus nurture debate. Piaget Piaget- Jean Piaget was a cognitive theorist who developed a theory of how children learn.

He claimed children go through stages and sequences in learning and that they are active learners also they use first hand experiences and prior experiences in order to learn imitate and transform what they learn into symbolic behaviour. This relates to current practice allowing teaching staff to plan effectively for the development of children using Piaget’s stages we can assess where and Unit 331 p6 Sarah Kennedy how a child is currently learning and plan activities and observations to help them to develop to there next stages.


Freud,s theory was based on how the mind functions. He believed there were factors outside of the individual person’s awareness (unconscious thoughts, feelings and experiences) that influence their emotions, behaviour, actions and their past experience shape their future. This relates to current practice as we encourage children to talk about their feelings/emotions and help them gain an understanding by reflecting on something that may have happened to them. Maslow Maslow’s theory looked at motivation and personality and suggested people had certain fundamental needs.

These needs had to be met before a person could achieve “self actualisation” if these needs are not met a disadvantage would be created in a person. This relates to current practise as when working with children it is important that their needs for food and warmth are met as we as their psychological needs love and promoting self esteem in regards to practice. Teachers, teaching assistance and volunteers should all think about the environment the children are in and focus on building strong relationships with them.


bandura’s theory is social development he believes children learn by observing the people around them parents/siblings they will imitate the actions of these people. A child will repeat the behaviour or activities of other children adults without being told to their learning is spontaneous. This relates to practice as all adults act as good role models speak quietly and stay calm in all situations. Under no circumstances do we use inappropriate language in are setting as the children would think its the right thing to do and copy.


Skinner’s theory was behavioural psychologist Skinners theory was based on operant conditioning and is based on both negative and positive reinforcement. Adults using this theory must be consistent on rewards and punishment so the children don’t become confused. e. g. if a child is good at task and they are rewarded positively they will perform in that way again. This relates to current practice if a child has done something good e. g. helped a friend, completed a specific task then the child would be rewarded with a sticker/or moved up the traffic light system so hopefully this sort of behaviour will be repeated.

If a child has negative behaviour e. g. swearing/unkind hands they will be put on the time out cushion or get moved down the traffic light system so hopefully the same behaviour will not be repeated. Watson Watson’s theory was that everybody was born with the same abilities and that anybody can be taught anything and each individual can be trained to behave in a certain way and that is does not depend on a innate ability but on watching others this relates to current practise by all adults acting as good role models.

Social pedagogy Social pedagogy is a framework which brings theories and concepts from sociology and education to create a holistic way of working with children/young people on a whole and to ensure all children are treated fairly and appropriately regardless of there individual needs. My current practise relates to this by treating all individuals fairly regardless of there needs e. g. children who have extra needs will be allocated a one to one key worker. Unit 331 p7 Sarah Kennedy Outcome 3 3. 1

Explain how to monitor children and young peoples development using different methods It is important to understand observations as part of your role as you will need to give feedback to teachers who will then report to parents on child’s progress teachers and parents should share information on the child to ensure that the child meets their full learning potential. Example 1 Informal observation = this sort of observation is carried out so that we can build up a bigger on each individual child it might be that an individual can use scissors correctly but may not be able hold a pencil.

Analyse your observations and highlight children’s achievements or their need for support. Take notes so when giving the teacher feedback you don’t forget to pass on what you have seen each individual child do. Example 2 Structured observation = these are factual accounts that will describe how a child young/person a pre-set task such as a simple maths sample paper. Notes would be taken to see whether they could complete the task or there where any issues.

Example 3

Assessment triangle = these assessments should only be used under the instruction of the class teacher or a special needs co-ordinator (SENCO) these observations are to determine whether an individual child/young person is in need and what their needs are. Doing an observation in this way enables teaching staff to plan accordingly to the child’s development stage and support them in reaching their expected milestones of development. 3. 2 Explain the reasons why children and young peoples development may not follow the expected pattern.

There are many reasons why they may not follow the expected learning patterns such as personal and external factors. Example 1 Language barrier = children who are from a different country may speak a different language at home to the language in school so may find it difficult to communicate with others. This would be very frustrating for the child/young person and would have an impact on their learning development. Example 2 Emotional = if a child was shown no love or attention they are more likely to lack in self esteem/ confidence this would have an impact on them being able to bond and could result in them having behavioural issues.

And affect their emotional development. Example 3 Home environment = children who come from a deprived background could have a poor diet due to the family being on a low income. The child may lack in self esteem, confidence and lack of motivation this would have an impact on their physical development. Unit 331 p8 3. 3 Explain how disability may affect development Disability can affect development in different ways it depends on the individual needs of a child if the child has a physical disability it may affect there their social skills if they become withdrawn or their behaviour if they get frustrated.

Development could also be affected by the expectations of others. If we assume a disabled child cannot take part in a certain task due to their disability we are restricting their development in all areas. All children should be treated equally regardless of their disability. If a task/activity was being carried out that did not suit the needs of a disabled child adaption s would be made accordingly. The medical model of disability The medical model of disability sees the disability as a “problem” which belongs to each individual disabled person. It does not concern anyone else other than the individual with the disability.

Disabled people were defined by their illness/medical condition. If they did not fit into society they were institutionalised or kept isolated at home. They never had their own opinions/choices over what school they went to, what kind of work they could or want to do, or support they had. Buildings were not designed for wheelchair users so this impacted on social interaction. e. g. work, school, transport, entertainment and family. Example- A disabled wheelchair user could not access a building due to steps/stairs the medical model would suggest its because of the wheelchair not the steps/stairs. The social model of disability.

The social model of disability in contrast would see the stairs as the disabling barrier. This model claims that it is society that disables people who have a disability. The social model recognise that there is a lot that can be done to reduce/remove some of these disabling barriers. And that this is the responsibility of society not the disabled person. The social model is more inclusive in approach and pro-active thought is given to how disabled people can participate in activities and be more independent in society. Adjustments would be made regardless to time/ money to ensure disabled people are not excluded.

All disabled and non-disabled people should be treated equally regardless of their impairment/ disability. And under no circumstances should anyone be discriminated against. 3. 4 Explain how different types of interventions can promote positive outcomes for children and young people where development is not following the expected pattern Example 1 There are many types of interventions that can come from professionals, adaptions, equipment. Social workers – can get involved if a child has problems in their home environment or if parents/ carers have asked for support.

They liaise with the school and offer support to those involved. Example 2 Psychiatrist- if there was serious concerns about a child’s emotional development there would be several different assessments then the child would be referred to see a psychiatrist who would then assess the child themselves and write a report and liaise with school so the child can get any additional help that they may need. Example 3 Youth justice- This sort of intervention is a public body which helps children/young people to stop offending they work with schools and the community where offending behaviour occurs.

They offer programmes for children/young people who may be at high risk of offending. Unit 331 p9 Outcome 4 4. 1 Analyse the importance of early identification of speech, language and communication delays and disorders and the potential risks of late recognition. It is very important to recognise the signs of delay the earlier we discover the needs of a child we can then help them in their speech, language and communication. Some of the signs would be not pronouncing words correctly, no speech at all, using singular words when at the age they should be using more words.

Once this has been identified with the appropriate support the child will become more confident with their impairment. If it was to left unidentified the child is more than likely to become frustrated and possibly show signs of unwanted behaviour. They may not want to get involved with the activities set out for other children and show low self esteem. It is the role of the practitioner to understand the children’s learning and development stages to be able to discover any early signs of delay so they can provide suitable activities to encourage the child’s learning development.

4. 2 Explain how multi-agency teams work together to support speech, language and communication. Multi-agency teams work together they are made up from a number of professionals they liaise with each other and have regular meetings to discuss and plan out how the child’s needs can be met. Some of the professionals involved would be. * Speech and Language therapist * Special Educational needs co-ordinator (SENCO) * Educational psychologist * Autism advisory teacher * Sensory support teacher * Teacher/Teaching assistances. 4.

3 Explain how play and activities are used to support the development of speech,language and communication. All children need to be encouraged to develop speech/language and communication skills as this is a very important part of their development. Adults need to give all children the opportunities to take part in speaking and listening. Play activities are used to support the development of speech language and communication. Example 1 Creativity encourages a child to experiment with different materials fabric, paints, pens, glue etc.

we can encourage them to do pictures using thumb/hand prints or make models using boxes/tubes children are able to make their own choices on what materials to use example would you like paper or a box for your activity. Creativity supports children in speech/language when they are discussing with teaching staff about what materials they need and when they are communicating with other children doing the same activity. Creativity also encourages the child’s development mentally and physically. Unit 331 p10 Example 2

Books are a great way for a child to express themselves they can show you their interests through pictures by saying one word like “bear” and you can encourage the child’s vocabulary by saying “brown bear” this would enhance the child’s speech and language and encourage them to put words together and can even help them understand what words mean. Books with sounds or pop up pictures can encourage a child to participate. Example 3 Role play and dressing up are a good way to develop children’s speech/language skills as most children enjoy imaginative play adults can join in and play along side them.

This sort of play is good for the child can express their feelings. Puppets are also a good way to develop communication skills as the children can interact with the puppets and make the puppets talk back they are interacting with one another. If you was working with a child with communication and interaction needs you would use non verbal strategies to support them such as hand gestures, flash cards, pictures and facial expressions this would be giving the child an additional aid to understanding. Outcome 5. 1 and 5. 2 Explain how different types of transition can affect children and young people’s development.

Evaluate the effect on children and young people of having positive relationships during periods of transition. Give one example of transition | Give one possible effect on children and young people’s development | Emotional New baby | Older children may become jealous at the arrival of a new baby this could affect their development by becoming anxious/frustrated and may even result in change of behaviour. | Physical Puberty | Puberty can affect children/young people physically as their bodies develop more like adults. Their hormones are developing and these can cause mood swings/frustration.

Teenagers become more anxious and self-conscious about their appearance and may ask questions like (am I normal) | Physiological Starting nursery | Children may become unsettled when leaving their parents for the first time to go to school they could become clingy/anxious and have crying outbursts not really knowing what is going on. | Intellectual fastening buttons/zips | Children may become agitated/frustrated when having do try and do certain things for themselves such as finding it difficult to fasten their zips and buttons etc.

They may lack in self-confidence if they cannot manage to do it. | Positively support a child in a transition Physical – Puberty I would take the child somewhere quiet and explain all maturer children reach the stage of puberty and explain the different stages. Hair growth, body changes, hormones, periods etc.

I would reassure them that what they are experiencing is perfectly normal/natural I would also advice Unit 331 p11 them to do some research on puberty for themselves e. g. books,online or even have a chat with local health care practitioner so they feel more comfortable with the transition they are going at this stage of development. Intellectual – Zips and buttons I would reassure the child that it is fine they need a little help with their fasteners and encourage them to try by helping them a little bit for support e. g.

I would attach the zip together to start them of and say you have ago at pulling it up whilst I help the other children. This way in least the child has had an attempt at doing it themselves.

If they do manage to do it I would praise the child and reward them with a sticker for their good effort. If the child could not manage to do it I would still be positive and say well done for trying and don’t worry about it we can try again another time. Reflective statement I provided opportunities for a boy who had just moved to England and had never attended a educational environment before he was very frightened and emotional he could only speak little English yes/no and could not understand all the questions he was being asked due to his language barrier.

He only came to school for a couple of hours on his first few days to ease him in slowly. I communicated with him using hand gestures thumbs up/facial expressions smiling and picture flash cards I comforted him through his transition holding his hand and showing him different areas of the school so he could familiarise himself with the setting reassuring him all the time that everything was going to be fine.

I sat with him when he was participating in activities such as circle time, phonics, role play, and assisted him if he did not understand by demonstrating what he needed to do to participate. After a few days he flourished and became much more settled with the school environment and seemed to be enjoying himself joining in with the other children and taking himself of to experience different activities around the classroom. Evaluate the effect on children and young people of having positive relationships during periods of transition.

It is vital for children/young people to have positive relationships during periods of transitions as all children/young people need consistency,trust and good bonding whether this be with parents/ carers, teachers, siblings etc. children who have got somebody they can trust in will find a transition easier then a child who has not. They will feel more confident to explore and will feel more relaxed. Children will feel cared for and will not be afraid to ask for help when needed if a child has good positive transitions in early childhood it will make transitions easier for them later in life.