Disaster Management of Water Supply

There is a great risk of outburst of epidemics if water supply is not restored within few hours of onset of disaster. There was record-breaking heavy monsoon rains on 26 July 2005.

Iambi and its metropolitan area received an unprecedented 944 mm rainfall in a span of Just twenty four hours which caused deadly floods that Jeopardized water supply of suburban cities. Events were so sudden that they were highly disruptive and had badly affected drinking water supply in initial few hours.The gates of the barrage which is a source of drinking water for Embarrass and Badlands cities and the ordnance factory were washed away and the water supply was completely stopped.

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Water supply of these cities was restored by switching it over to the adjoining Bavaria yester. Considering success of this type of arrangement an idea of interlinking of all water supply systems in Iambi metropolitan area was mooted and came forward. If one source of the city is hampered, the system must ensure that it receives water from the alternate source to maintain continuous water supply.The alternate source can be unaffected source supplying water. Modeling of the failure system is a critical part of designing and operating water networks so that the water system serves community reliably, safely and efficiently in the crisis period.

A hydraulic model of interlinking water supply systems has been prepared for Embarrass-Badlands and the Bavaria system. The model is a mathematical description of a real-world system that gives solution of switching over to alternate sources, if any disaster strikes.Objective of this paper, therefore, is to present a GIS based hydraulic model that describes simulation of behavior of systems and how it would help in restoring water supply whenever disaster strikes. 1. INTRODUCTION Disasters of any kind to water infrastructure cannot be clearly figured out or predicted before its occurrence. Providing water supply in such period is a daunting task for water supply authorities. If water supply is not restored in early hours of onset of disaster, it leads to law-and-order problem; nevertheless the situation is fraught with danger of outburst of epidemics.

If one cannot avoid disasters, at least the disaster management plan must be kept ready to tackle any eventuality. Therefore, it is very much necessary to have perfect knowledge of the system. Iambi, Indian’s financial capital and its surrounding area, received a record- breaking 944 millimeters of rain in a period of Just twenty-four hour on 26th July, 005.

Indian’s previous allied single-day record of 838 mm was set in 1912. The heavy monsoon rain triggered deadly floods, which have claimed more than 1100 lives in the country’s western Maharajah’s state.Monsoon-related flooding is a common phenomenon in the summer when the heated landmass generates winds that pull warm, moisture-laden air over the Indian subcontinent, but this time the rains were unusual even for the summer monsoon. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite (NASA, 2005) captured the top image (Figure 1) of the rain over Iambi at 3:39 p. M. Local time, on July 26, 2005.

The image shows (Earth observatory, 2005) a spot of heaviest rainfall which sits directly over Iambi, indicating rain rates as high as 50 millimeters per hour immediately around the city.Figure 1: Satellite image of rainfall over Iambi During flood disaster on 26th July 2005, in Iambi metropolitan area, water supply of the two cities, namely, Embarrass and Badlands was completely Jeopardized as the gates of the barrage were washed away (Figure 2) due to unprecedented rise in the water level. The water supply of these two cities was successfully restored by the arrangements of interlinking the source of affected city with the available nearby normal unaffected alternate source.Principle of interlinking water supply system pivots on the fact that if one source of the city is hampered, the system gets water from the alternate source to maintain continuous water supply. (a) Before Flood: Badlands Barrage (b) After Flood: All 5 gates, bridge and hoist washed away.

Figure 2: Plight of Badlands barrage A hydraulic model simulating the water supply systems of Embarrass and Badlands has been prepared using application software of Arctic and Watergate.Modeling f the failure system is a critical part of designing and operating water networks so that the water system serves community reliably, safely and efficiently in the crisis period. The model describes real-world system mathematically and gives set of solutions for switching over to alternate sources, if any disaster strikes.

Objective of this paper, therefore, is to unfold various characteristics of the model and describes how it would be applied during any crisis period. The study presents various real alternatives to the municipal authorities, if any one of its sources fails dung disaster.