Develop for yourself a working definition of disasters from a community perspective. According to the Disaster Management Act 2003, A disaster is a serious disruption in a community, caused by the impact of an event that requires a significant coordinated response by the State and other entities to help the community recover from the disruption. Serious disruption means? (a) loss of human life, or illness or injury to humans; or (b) widespread or severe property loss or damage; or (c) widespread or severe damage to the environment. Disaster Management Act , 003) Disaster from a community perspective in my understanding is a severe distraction to the community which causes or intimidate loss or injury in the society, and damage to possessions and environment which is beyond the limit of everyday capability which requires extraordinary coordinated response and manipulations by state / federal government and other community organization of resources to help recover from distraction or disturbance. Expressed as Hazard + Vulnerability / Capacity ? Disaster. Disaster Management) It can be understood and studied on a wide perceptive, focus multidisciplinary responses which focus on health related issues and consequences of disaster. It involves three essential areas: risk management and emergency; public health, clinical and psychological care. 2. Consider three recent events and explain why they meet this definition of a disaster. Few events In the last decade In Australia which are considered as a major disaster event consequently affecting health and day to day life are recorded as disaster causing major impact on health, damage to life, property, environment and natural resources.
Queensland, Australia was seriously inclined and influenced by an flood series in December 2010 with three quarter of the state announced as a assister and calamity zone. The flood constrained the clearing of a large number of individuals from towns and urban communities. Above 200,000 people and 70 towns and urban areas were affected which reduced the GAP of Australia by $30 Billion ADD worth of property damages apart from affect on human beings, wild life and natural resources. Natural Disaster) The bushfire that touched off or were blazing crossfire over Victoria, Australia on and around 7 Feb. 2009 on Saturday also known as Black Saturday Bushfire. The fire blazes happened amid compelling hot climate notations and brought about Australia’s most noteworthy ever death toll from a bushfire (recorded 414 Injured and 173 deaths as after effect of the fire flames). As numerous 400 people fire blazes were recorded on this day. (Natural Disaster) ‘Larry a Serious Tropical Cyclone formed as a low in pressure structure over across the east Coral Sea region immediately fortified into a type 4-5 storm.
On 20 Mar 2006, this Larry ended a landfall with wind blasts arriving at Kemp. Comparing similar and Surpassing Tracey a wind cyclone affect in mid 1974 the current Larry resulting about $1. Billion ADD worth of property damage In natural resources, wild life and humans 1. 2 1 . What do you understand by the term “Disasters are a social phenomenon”? The idea of disaster, particularly the ascribed cause of the event, has altered over a period of time.
Foremost in history the outlooks of some unexpected and odd substantial disaster with considerable harmful effects were considered as ‘Demonstrations of God or super natural powers’ is a tradition across many parts of the world. (Quartile, 1992) A hurricane, Cyclone, earthquake or a volcanic eruptions the disaster was considered from a supernatural power in a religious specs. In recent time, with the advancement of science and technology, society has more developed a non religious ideology and now being more secular, the term of ‘demonstration of God or super natural power has evolved with a term as ‘disaster’.
So flood the result of drainage capabilities and rainfall, earthquakes are the consequence of physics and dynamics. But in any case the paranormal or nature, the descriptions is that a bit external and ahead of the sphere of humans was accountable for whatsoever happens which impact the society anyways. Thus disaster is considered to be a social phenomenon. Rodriguez, Dyne’s, & Quartile, 2007) 2. How has this understanding changed over the last 20 years and how would it be different in a resource poor society?
Understanding the difference between a Hazard and a Disaster. Disasters can and has affected on everybody, so it’s everyone’s problem. Disaster risk decline be supposed to be an element of day to day decision- making in involvement of things such as planning their house, towns, cities with well and systemic approach, educating their children, doing things in a disciple and systemic manner. Every decision be able to build us both more vulnerable or more silent if not planned and educated well about the consequences. Wallets¶m, 2000) Understanding that disasters are generally more and more triggered by human behaviors and human induced such as rapid arbitration, deforestation, environmental degradation and climate change. Disaster is not anything ‘natural’. Natural world, environment provides hazards such as floods, earthquakes, cyclones, volcanic eruptions,etc. But humans lend a hand to create it a disaster. We as Humans cannot avoid a cyclone or volcanic eruption but we can help in avoid it as of becoming a disaster. By integrating risk in urban and town planning, alerting and educating about the dangers, preparing and rehabilitating. Wallets¶m, 2000) Activity 1. 3 1 . Consider the outbreak of Swine Flu in 2009. Do you consider this was a disaster? Explain how this may be considered a disaster and how it may not. According to me, The Outbreak of 2009 Swine Flu is not a disaster. It was Just outspread which spread rapidly due to negligence of several pupils, authority and government. Through it caused a serious damage to life, created an impact on life and health issues in several countries I don’t consider it has a disaster. Precautions if would have been taken on time, well notice would have been released in mass media, newspapers.
Vaccinations and other medical aid provided on time which would help avoid it spread epidemic would have been safer and better. Due to negligence of several governing bodies and organizations cannot be considered as disaster. A disaster. Negligence of the Government official bodies, negligence of public, Purposely driving virus into the environment for medical research and experiments in turn to increase sales and promotion of vaccines by medical organizations, Test or experiment without proper medical facilities and medical infrastructure.
Not taking prescribed precautions and usage methodologies. Example of Sydney polluted Water Crisis. Activity 1. 4 1. Are disasters increasing or is it Just better reporting. It is tricky to consent to that the rate of disaster would changed and huge investments and ventures in science and technology wellbeing, safety frameworks would not diminish related events. In 2012, 357 common activated natural disasters were enlisted. This was together less than UDF from 2002 to 2011 (394), and noted a decrease in related to human impacts n 2012 and further till date.
Nonetheless, a sum of 9,655 individuals died (2002-2011 and 124. 5 million individuals became victims across the globe (2002-2011:268 million). In spite of different pointers, monetary harms from regular disaster did demonstrate a build to above normal levels (143 billion 2012 US S), with evaluations setting the figure at US$ 1 57 billion. (Gush-Sapid, Below, & Hoys, 2012) 2. Identify the factors that may be increasing the rates of disasters and those that may be reducing them?
Some of the factors impacting on such a dramatic change in the figures may include: Enhanced reporting Increased Density and population High risk cities and towns related uncertainty and global warming Armed conflict Increased reliance on science, systems and technologies Economic pressure with very much increased benefit values Activity 1. 5 1 . Briefly detail the normal psychological reaction to the loss and grief associated with disasters. The way of the passionate reaction of people and the group included in an occasion is a specific center of concern.
Normal functioning activity is liable to be upset and the psychosocial effects may broaden well past the recovery, rehabilitation and healing stage. There are various periods of the emotional response to disasters that have a tendency to rise. Some of these are explained (Recovery: Australian Emergency Manual Series – Manual 10. Commonwealth of Australia. Pop,2004): Heroic – a feeling of philanthropy is likely at effect, and promptly after, as those included Joins in exercises to spare lives and material belonging. Honeymoon – a feeling of imparted survival and foresight of help however offers from legislators, the media and the group aids in framing solid bonds and frustration show up after the introductory rapture declines and outer backing senses. Reconstruction – acknowledgment that a definitive obligation lies with people Responses will happen at diverse times and for distinctive lengths. Nonetheless, it is basic not to credit pathology to these ordinary responses to misfortune and sorrow. It is ordinary to feel tragic on the off chance that you have lost your family in a debacle and not so much misery.
It is therefore imperative to perceive the typical responses to misfortune and sorrow and to screen people all through the period recuperation for any indications of more considerable pathology. Some will create genuine dysfunctional behaviors as an after effect of calamities while others find an inward quality that permits them to develop in particular quality. In spite of the fact that new gatherings and companionship are regularly structured after a debacle, strains seeing someone will additionally show up. Giving and getting may be Joined or substituted by clash, displeasure and desire prompting changes in relationship. Recovery: Australian Emergency Manual Series – Manual 10. Commonwealth of Australia. Pop, 2004) Activity 1. 6 1 . List the core principles of disaster management and for each write a very brief ascription. There are various key principles, methodologies and approaches that guide disaster calamity administration and management. These are the standards or rules look to give a typical methodology which may minimize the risk or danger of diverse organizations or distinctive components of a agencies taking an alternate approach that may bring about misunderstanding, gaps accordingly, go beyond and done in efforts. Fleming & Parker, 2012) Risk based Approach: Defining hazard in an alternate setting, Understanding of the word hazard and risk. Hazard could be ordered into Natural hazard, man-made risks and blended mixed hazards. All Hazard and risk approach: The all-risks methodology looks for regular methodologies to the planning and reaction, paying little mind to the danger. Put essentially, groups ought to react in a standard manner (at any rate at first) paying little mind to the test. Fleming & Parker, 2012) All institution: There is a hazard that distinctive offices, or diverse levels inside individual organizations, may respond to a significant occurrence in distinctive ways. The result could be misunderstanding, gaps accordingly, go beyond and done in efforts. (Fleming & Parker, 2012) Familiarity: The tankard of commonality portrays the comprehension that the best reaction to significant occurrences is attained when those reacting are acquainted with their parts and obligations. This is best attained if the reaction courses of action are focused around those that individuals embrace regularly. Fleming & Parker, 2012) Comprehensive approach: The standard of an extensive methodology is focused around the cycle of disaster administration, which looks to guarantee consistency for the duration of the life cycle of prevention (avoidance), preparation (Groundwork), response (react) and recovery (rehabilitate) (PR). Fleming & Parker, 2012) Activity 1. 7 jurisdiction with which you are familiar A significant addition to power and authority systems are the system of legal legislative laws that supply the legal law outline for action.
Example in the Australian perspective there are currently three foundation of law: Common-law Judge-made law/case-law) Legislation (Acts of Parliament) Aboriginal and Tortes Strait Islander Customary law (this only applies to Aboriginal and Tortes Strait Islander peoples). Australia as a federal state shares the power in between the State Government and Commonwealth government. Strategy and Programming Framework 2014-2024, 2014) 2. Where would a disaster manager find the legal protection necessary to order a community evacuation in the threat of a flood?
Risk is an essential part of attaining any aim and purpose. Many institutions have recognized risk management divisions or arrangements. This performs very closely accountability for accomplishment of aims and objectives from supervising risk. Risk managers were frequently supposed as technocrats somewhat train, prepare and mentors to assist people supervise their risks. Legal protection findings: Australian Emergency Management Handbook / Manual Series (Australian Emergency Management Handbook, 2011) In February 2011, the Council of Australian Governments (COCA) (Emergency Management, 2011) Activity 1. 1 . External assistance will always be helpful and should be welcomed. Provide a brief commentary on this proposition. Few International aid and external assistance organizations such as the non-government organizations (Nags), United Nations Refugee Agency (MUNCH), and the United States Centers’ for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), International Committee of Red Cross, etc. Module 2 Activity 2. 1 1 . Create a table which identifies the top five risks for your community (where you live), assesses the risk and identified the management strategies designed to mitigate the risk.
Brisbane District Risk Risk Assessment Strategies Storm There is certainly the particular likely some sort of extreme storm causing disruption to help essential residential property, commercial properties, natural resources and infrastructure. Structure codes, flexibility of infrastructure and networks, notification systems, Local training, Establish support, Evacuation planning. Earthquake There is certainly the particular likely some sort of severe earthquake causing disruption to help essential residential property, commercial properties, natural resources and infrastructure.
Structure codes, flexibility of infrastructure planning. Cyclone There is certainly the particular likely some sort of strong cyclone causing disruption to help essential residential property, commercial properties, natural resources and infrastructure. Structure codes, flexibility of infrastructure and networks, notification systems, Local training, Flood mitigation strategies, Establish support, Evacuation planning, Drainage system maintenance Pandemic There is the potential a pandemic epidemic could cause significant impact for people across.
Pandemic Plan, Health Plans, Public Awareness, Evacuation plans, Influenza Plan, Media Plan, Seasonal Preparedness, Heat Stress Plan, Local training Terrorist Incident There is the possible of a terrorist incident could cause major disruption of society, multiple deaths and important infrastructure and major danger to the safety, protection of people and require evacuations and rehabilitation. Law enforcement, Structure codes, flexibility of infrastructure and networks, deification systems, Local training, Establish support, Evacuation planning. Activity 2. 2 1 .
Identify and briefly describe the principles of management of non-routine risks. Non routine risk has incredibly small concern from the media, society and government. Therefore risk examination, improvement and prevention (avoidance) planning and actions have to be a constant practice. The approach to deal with non routine risk in society will be: Discover the cause of the trouble engage and correspond with stakeholder. Set up quantitative hazard risk review components. Calculate the hazard and risk and its effect. Update decision resolution processes. Activity 2. 3 1 .
Identify a disaster plan and briefly describe its core components. Queensland, Australia was seriously inclined and influenced by an flood series in December 2010 with three quarter of the state announced as a disaster and calamity zone. The flood constrained the clearing of a large number of individuals from towns and urban communities. Above 200,000 people and 70 towns and urban areas were affected Prevention: Take measures to avoid it by various alternatives, Preparedness: Be well prepared and educated for its effects and consequences, Reaction: React according o the standards which reduce danger and loss of life’s and property.
Recovery: Recovering from a disaster is the main key aspect which rehabilitate and well again start a normal day to day activities. 2. Briefly evaluate it against the principles of disaster planning. Generally Risk, Disaster, Hazard, Calamity Management standard plans are: Prevention (avoidance), Preparedness (awareness), Reaction (response) and recovery (improvement). But some other allied activities are used against disaster are: Distinguish suitably the dissimilarity between cause and reaction generated, perform general functions in an allotment of labor and task allocation, processing of data.
Activity 2. 4 1 . Preparedness involves more than planning. Identify strategies other than planning that are essential to effective community resilience and preparedness. Preparedness refers to the activities and strategies taken with aim to prepare a community to be resilient and able to respond rapidly to disasters. Although planning is a key element of preparedness, there are strategies that are essential to establish an effective community resilience and preparedness.
Surveillance establishes systems and structures that control risks within the community. Preparedness requires attention to people, facilities, equipment and resources. Preparing people should be achieved by educate and train them. Facilities need to be considered what we can do to design health facilities to make them resilient and adaptable. Equipment such as medical equipment, transportation and communication equipment required in disaster needs to be evaluated for its appropriateness in a disaster.
Consumables are important to ensure business continuity as the supply chain of consumables will need protection in a disaster, therefore planning should achieve the resilience of the apply chain. Stockpiles are important element of preparedness to protect equipment and consumables so that they are ready during disaster. Module 3 Activity 3. 1 1. List and briefly describe the components of an incident assessment. When a disaster incident occurs, firstly it needs an review and assessment. This resolve evaluates the character, scope, degree and force of the disaster.
Few components which needs to be considered include policy, procedure and standards required to perform the task carefully, planning and preparation provides solutions for the task, organizational helps in finance, HER, resources and other required resources, political, social, clinical, and operating environments. Activity 3. 2 1 . Critically evaluate the options for overall command of an incident in your community. The system inspects right and ability, responsibilities for response and recovery and reporting and evaluation.
Authority- Right and ability that the responsible organization who involves in acting on or during the event. Responsibilities: Organization involved and their roles of perform during an event or incident. Response Management: consists of areas such as authority and control, immunization and coordination, capacity, containment, clinical management and continuity. The common conventional system is termed as Incident Command System. Evaluation and Reporting: Required to evaluate and access the efficiency of activities and information on incident.
Activity 3. 3 1 . Write a brief paragraph summarizing the components of the Incident Command System. Control and Manage is extremely essential portion of virtually any reaction to a serious event or disaster. The actual Occurrence Control Program contains four elements: Planning will involve a research on the circumstances along with the uniqueness on the event. That examines the aftermaths on the event with individuals, society, company functions and natural environment, after which supplies estimates to formulate the action plan.
Operations provide quick alternatives and are designed to eliminate the situation. The actual function crew offers obligation of supplies, coordination and logistics specialists intended for event. Logistics that handle HER, Finance, accommodation, food supply and telecoms. They are in control of crucial companies for instance IT support, stability, center maintenance and data maintenance. Communications handle and observe the mass media, mass media conferences, public appointments and advancement of crucial emails.
All round, the Occurrence Control Program need to achieve options of motion, correct and reasonable details, accomplish of teamwork and relationships, briefings and scenario case studies, comfortable natural environment and best useful resource use. 2. Examine the mass gathering incident that occurred at the Hajj] in January 2006. Identify improvements that have occurred in preparedness since that event. On 12 January 2006 the stampede took place while pilgrims tried using to come in the actual three pillars that symbolizes the Satan in Mina.
Since result of this specific event 362 individuals were died in addition to 289 were harmed. Structural modernize in addition to delicate audience management strategies may reduce the chance involving additional tragedies throughout the stone throwing religious act in the Hajj] pilgrimage. Throughout the stoning many people gathered at a small place causing an incident of disaster towards left of the Samaras bridge leaving the other people behind for a better communication to find out the left over baggage which as containing dangerous material. 3.
What are the principles that should govern the deployment of foreign medical teams to a disaster in an underdeveloped country? The time available for the response is very important. International rescue and search operation teams often obtain much media hype and overshadowing their inadequate capability to appear initially when efforts are much required. Therefore the local resources need to be self-reliant for at least 1 week. Remote assistance may arrive before this time. TDMA teams, on showing up might be mixed up in operating associated with routine elate-related facilities.
You should realize that non-medical essentials usually are associated with better desperation in comparison with disaster health-related requires soon after operation. Drinking Waters, Food, shelter, sanitation and medicines. Medical attention must respond to this particular major attention will merely area the attention on logistical along with specialized facilitates is probably not productive but required. Egg. The Gujarat Earthquake in 2001. Module 4 Activity 4. 1 1 . Identify and briefly describe the key strategies required for community recovery.
The process of helping disaster impacted areas to rebuild infrastructure and reestablish all areas of life is Disaster recovery. Recovery plans will often incorporate activities to minimize your impact of a disaster or maybe future dangers. Troubles for community recovery are found in many fields including mental health and public health. The community recovery involves organizations and people across government and Nags. The communities perform important roles. Recovery will incorporate environmental, physical and financial elements and also psychosocial.
Recovery provides chance to strengthen all elements over and above preceding ailments over the advancement associated with sociable and healthy circumstances, economic climates and infrastructure.