Each country has developed and formed their own rules of politics yet when comparing them many similar ideologies are identified. The alliance of the United States and the United Kingdom can be traced back over two hundred years ago. The “Special Relationship” states that both countries share similar political/economic structures and historical relations. In the United Kingdom, the idea of evolution rather revolution developed this emphasized more democratic ideas that gave restrictions to the monarchy, while in the United States the government is not trusted because of their operation of the monarchy.
Specific historical events have led to government adjustments to enforce its power. In 1688 the Glorious Revolution occurred due to William III invasion of England and overthrow of James II. This event was impactful in the UK because it restricted monarchs from having complete authority. This resulted in the end of Divine Right by not allowing the Monarch to “carry out laws, raise taxes or keep an army without Parliament’s consent”(Lumen 05 Dec 2017). This event took many initiatives in the way power was imposed, before this occurrence power revolved around the Monarch but after this event power shifted to Parliament in the United Kingdom. Many colonists in the United States supported the Glorious Revolution because it was their way of getting rid of Edmund Andros and James II dominion of New England colonies it allowed them to start self-government. Another impactful event to both the United States and Britain was the Declaration of Independence 1776. This declaration was a legal document that announced the reasons why the thirteen colonies would separate from the British Empire and announce the United States as a new nation. The colonist believed that King George III wasn’t giving them enough representation in Parliament. The Brits response suggested reflecting on the bloody consequences (American Revolution) that would form if colonists separated from their empire. Colonists were forced to surrender Britain, but they resisted and won political independence from the British Empire. After fighting against each other in the American Revolution and the War of 1812, they were able to come together forming the Allied Powers including Britain, France, Russia, Italy, and United States in WW1 to fight against the Central Power Germany and Turkey. After World War 1 British society was based on the “working class,” they took part in more political power. This war encouraged the development of ‘modern’ British society, which resulted in the change of women social status. In the United States and the United Kingdom similar attitudes for gender roles were practiced. Women have always been treated as inferior to men and therefore not granted the opportunity to have a voice in politics. In 1920 the United States created the 19th amendment, which granted women the right to vote. It was until 1928 that the UK allowed women’s right to vote. This introduced more fair treatment to citizens.
Political systems are created in order to take demand within a country. The United States and the United Kingdom have developed their own rules and form of government to impose and secure American citizens rights and maintain an equal society. In the United States, the government is classified as Democratic in which the people rule. People are given the right to elect a leader whom they want their ideas to be represented by. But it’s also expressed as a Republic; the people elect the Chief of State (the president). Unlike the United Kingdom, in which “the throne is inherited through a family dynasty”(TM & Scholastic Inc. 05 Dec 2017). The United States has a federal system of government this means that the power is shared with the state and local government. The United States sets laws according to the principles that correspond to the Constitution. This is why it’s known as a constitutional government. The constitution created the system as a way to limit the government’s authority by separating the power into three branches: Legislative, Executive and Judicial. The Legislative Branch (Congress) is separated into two chambers the House of Representatives and the Senate they are in charge of creating laws. The House of Representatives (lower house) makes and passes federal laws. The U.S. Senate (upper house) is in charge of overlooking legislation after it passes the lower house. In the Executive Branch, the president ensures the laws of the nation are enforced. The chief executive is in charge of meeting with foreign leaders to create allies and form treaties. The Judicial Branch power is given to the Supreme Court in which it can declare laws unconstitutional often known as judicial review. Checks and Balances grant the separation of power in with each branch overlooks the others to prevent the development of one powerful branch. People also take a big role in the U.S. government; citizens at the age of 18 and over have the right to voice in government by voting. In the election process, the Electoral College claims that the popular vote does not grant a win. In comparison, the United Kingdom is a parliamentary democracy. “The head of state is the monarch who is currently Queen Elizabeth III while the head of government is the Prime Minister currently David Cameron”, (Morse Catherine, Michigan Library,2010, 07 Dec 2017). Unlike the United States Checks and Balances, the United Kingdom doesn’t have a formal separation of powers. The Legislative branch is constructed with two separate houses, the House of Common and the House of Lords. The House of Common is an elected body where the head of state resides. The House of Lords enforces laws, amends bills and challenges the government. The most powerful office in government is the Prime Minister formed by Members of Parliament. The two reasons towards the weakening of the monarchal power were the “rise of political parties the conservatives (Tories) they supported the monarch while the Liberals (Whigs) opposed the monarch”, (O’Neil, H., Patrick, et al. Essentials Of Comparative Politics With Cases. W.W. Norton Company, 1966). The second reason for the weakening was the expansion of suffrage. The Labour Party promoted devolution of power to the United Kingdom. Since 1999, UK has transformed to devolution a process to decentralize the government to separate Parliaments and Assemblies into three nations (Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland) and England. The UK Parliament is elected by (FPTP) the candidate with the most number of votes gets elected as Member of Parliament. The Fixed-term Parliament Act mandates that elections must occur every five years. Both the United States and the United kingdom follow a “single member plurality voting system”, (Archive Single Member Plurality System, 06 Dec 2017).
Collective responsibility serves to unify the government together so that media shows a united relationship of Parliament and civil people. Parliamentary rules follow collective cabinet responsibility where the cabinet ministers must support and appear organized when taking action in a policy if not they are to resign and return to legislative. Not to get confused with Individual Ministerial Responsibility, which states that the cabinet minister must accept the actions of their ministry this responsibility you have no choice but to support it or resign. In the United States, politics don’t practice collective responsibility because the executive and legislative branches work separately. Cabinet members cannot be part of Congress nor take a vote in legislation; they always support the president’s policies because they could easily get dismissed or appointed.
The British government implements tradition as its source of stability because it’s citizens are to follow their religious traditions and they have a lot of trust in their government. The UK practices an Evolutionary and Parliamentary Democracy. The UK government follows a Traditional Legitimacy, which is created by the introduction of custom and principals over time. In contrast, the United States has a Rational-Legal Legitimacy, which is built rules and procedures and implement the enforcement of regulations strictly. “Both the United States and the United Kingdom civilians abide by the decisions of those in power because those individuals are abiding by existing institutionalized rules” (O’Neil, H., Patrick, et al. Essentials Of Comparative Politics With Cases. W.W. Norton& Company, 1966).
The United States is known for its two-party system (republicans and democrats) the chances of emerging into a third party system are rare. Third parties are created but aren’t powerful enough to dominate or compete with the main parties. Third parties in the U.S. struggle to get enough funds to cover the campaign expenses. In contrast, the United Kingdom is a multi-party system with supports third parties, and inclusively it has many political parties in the House of Commons. Despite the various political parties, the two most substantial UK political parties are the Conservative Party and the Labor Party.
Despite the horrific historical events that the United Kingdom and the United States were involved in they were able to become close allies. The major turnaround event that resulted in a friendly side of their relationship was World War 1 both countries began to strengthen their ties. The U.S and the UK have worked together to discuss forging policy issues and global conflicts. A “Bilateral Cooperation” was able to form between both nations to connect their similar political structure and standards, (U.S Department of State, U.S Relations With United Kingdom, 07 Dec 2017).
War was a difficult time for the United Kingdom, and there was much devastation in its surrounding areas. William Beveridge introduced welfare states as a way to get rid of “poverty, disease, ignorance, squalor and idleness”(BBC, The Welfare 08 Dec 2017). His proposed idea consisted of joining other organizations as a way to successfully overcome the war damages. Beveridge was able to create welfare states only by expressing the dangers of not creating it. States are required to provide documentation of financial security to determine the number of funds offered to an individual. The United States does not support welfare states because we believe that everyone should work to receive their own help and necessities. Many frauds have been found within Welfare systems that citizens have come to the conclusion of banning this beneficial for the people.
Devolution is mainly implemented in the United Kingdom were Scotland, Northern Ireland, and Wales each have their own authority over their actions. Devolution is presented with the central government having most of the power, but allowing local governments to take part of some authority. The United States does not have the implementation of devolution they follow the system of federalism. Federalism implicated a follow up of the U.S Constitution in which all the states stay together and build a stable government.
The U.S. has a written constitution to make a stronger government and get rid of the Articles of Confederation. The Constitution of the United States is a beneficial source used for limiting the government power and protecting U.S. citizen’s rights. Anti-federalist denied the ratification of the U.S. Constitution and demanded a Bill of Rights to remove some power from the Federal government. Unlike the United States, the UK has an unwritten constitution with no single document that can be expressed as the Britain constitution. The UK mentions how they have been stable and don’t require the need for an actual constitution. Similar to the U.S. the United Kingdom has Bill of Rights that granted individuals certain rights. Many people claim that a written constitution is more accessible to follow up and make adjustments rather than not having a written constitution. The United States citizens use the U.S. Constitution as a protection of any rights against the state; while the UK citizens demonstrate complete trust of their government they don’t even question the idea of not having their rights in a legal paper.
A significant event occurring in December 2017 is that the United Kingdom voted to leave the European Union, which is called Brexit (Britain exiting the EU). The reason towards the Brexit was due to a referendum in which British citizens voted to remain or leave the European Union. The British exit from the EU might take up to two years to come to a close negotiation. The United Kingdom had a major effect on its market after the Brexit vote. Marker prices sank, and the pound currency went down by almost 14 percent if things get worst this could result in inflation. Unlike in the UK, Texit (Texas secession from the United States) could not legally occur in the United States. In 1869 the U.S. Supreme Court created a law case Texas v. White claiming the no individual state can secede from its union. “Texas can divide itself into five states but cannot secede from the U.S (Pattani Aneri, The Texas Tribune, 24 June 2016, Dec 08/2017). The reason it can separate is because of the