Access how factors within educational policies in Britain cause educational underachievement for the working class subculture. By exaggerator’s Access how factors within educational policies in Britain cause educational underachievement for the working class subculture. Educational policies have important effects on inequalities between class subcultures in education, I have picked out three of the educational polices between 1944 and 1 988 that I believe has influenced working class achievement the most, the butler tripartite system in 1944, he comprehensive system in 1965+, and the ERA (new right policy) in 1988.
The first policy that began to influence the was the tripartite system which brought in the 1 1+, butlers intentions when he brought in the butler act was to give each class equal chance to attend grammar or secondary modern but this didn’t happen, what actually happened was that because middle class students had more resources and the ability to afford talon. Also as the 11+ used the elaborated code this but middle class at an advantage and grammar schools where predominantly middle class paving secondary modern to be predominantly working class.
As secondary modern schools pupils left at 15 they didn’t take there GASES and left with no qualifications leaving working class with jobs at minimum wage and middle class achieving gases and getting middle class jobs with a better pay such as doctor, teachers and nurses. 19 years later the comprehensive system took place which was the abolishing of the 1 1+, the idea was to make education more meritocracy, everyone went to the same school.
But streaming occurred, streaming was separating children into different ability groups or classes called ‘streams’ each ability group is then taught separately from the others for all subjects. Becker shows that because teachers don’t see working class as an Ideal pupil the tend to have low expectations from them and place them In the lower groups. Once streamed It Is very difficult to move up or down so working class students do not get taught enough to pass exams and get the qualifications to get middle class jobs in the future.
ERA Normalization the new right policy since 1988 aimed to create an education market, with parental choice and imputation between schools. The new right was the introduction of stats, league tables, Offset, formula funding and preponderance. This policy increased inequality between classes as it put middle class parents at an advantage as they were better placed to take advantage of the available choices. Exam league tables allowed schools to be more selective and recruit high achieving mainly middle class pupils, as a result middle class pupils get the best education and working class get the worse.
The funding formula meant the more pupils per school the more money that school chive. As a result popular schools get more funding and as working class schools aren’t that popular as they have the worse league tables they can’t afford the more qualified teachers or the better resources. Normalization also meant that everyone Is schools with the better league tables are predominantly middle class they are in middle class areas which mean house prices go up in them areas which lead to selection by mortgage.
In conclusion all these polices were brought out to promote inequality but actually ended up causing educational underachievement for working lass subcultures, but in 1997 new labor polices introduced several policies that aimed specifically at reducing inequality at disadvantage groups by offering these groups support in ways like; designating some deprived areas as education action zones and provided them with additional resources, the aim- higher group programmer that aim was to raise aspirations of working class students and finally educational maintenance allowance (EMMA) Which provided students from low income backgrounds payments to encourage them to stay on at school after 16 to gain better qualifications.