EFFECT OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON THEGROWTH AND YIELD OF GREEN GRAMIntroduction: Greengram (Vigna radiata) also known as moongbean is one of the most important pulse crops in India which is cultivatedsince ancient times. Green gram is native to the Indian sub-continent andcentral Asia and is grown in these regions over a long decade. It is alsowidely cultivated throughout Asia, including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh,sri-lanka, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia, South ChinaandFormosa.Greengrams are nutritious source of food with 24.
7% protein, 0.6% fat, 0.9% fiberand 3.7 % ash as well as sufficient of calcium, phosphorous and importantvitamins ( Potterand Hotchkiss , 1997).
It can be also grown for the purpose of green manure, hay and cover crops. Itis a bushy plant that can grow up to a height of 30-120 cm and the colour isusually green but sometimes it can be found in sheds of black and yellow. Thepods are linear sometimes curved, round slender and hairy.Moongbean is consumed in the form of split pulse as well as whole pulse which is anessential supplement of cereal based diet.
The biological value improvesgreatly when wheat or rice is combined with green gram because of thecomplementary relationship of the essential amino acid. It is particularly richin Leucine, phenylalanine, lysine, valine, isoleucine etc. In addition it is also being important sourceof human food and animal feed.
Green gram is not only significant to human foodand animal feed, but also plays an important role in sustaining soil fertilityby improving the soil physical properties and fixing atmospheric nitrogen. Itis a drought resistant crop and suitable for dry land farming and predominantlyused as an intercrop with additional crops. However, the productivity of thesecrops is very low because of their cultivation on marginal and sub marginalland of low soil fertility where little attention is paid to adequatefertilization (Saravanan et al., 2013).Indiais the world’s largest produce as well as consumer of green gram. It producesabout 1.5-2.
0 million tons of mung annually from about 3-4 million hectare ofarea in which it produce an average productivity of about500kg per hectare.Green gram output accounts for about 10-12% of total pulse production in thecountry. Production of green gram in the country is laxdxdrgely concentrated inthe state of Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat and Bihar.
Together it contributes about 70% of the total mung production in the country (GOI.Department of agriculture andcooperation. 2014-2015)InIndia soil health is one of the most important factors for the production ofcrop.
Farmer use excessive amount of inorganic fertilizer to plant in order toachieveda higher yield and high economic return. The most applied fertilizerare leach down below the root zone, thus farmer are used to applied largeamount of synthetic fertilizer, which caused high pollution level to the groundwater, causing soil damages and finally lead to decreasing crop sustainability,continues use of chemical fertilizer have had unbalance of soil nutrient and atlong last led to consequences a major constraint of productivity, stability andsustainability of soil production. Also, Yadav and Meena in 2009 found thatapplication of inorganic fertilizer alone over a long period of time causesmicronutrient deficiencies. The effect of using organic and inorganic fertilizer on green gram plant, itsproductivity and soil fertility is to promote the application of organicfertilizer and decreased the used of inorganic fertilizer in order to face thedeterioration in the soil and to preserved the natural resource .
Animportant feature of the mung-bean crop is its ability to establish a symbioticpartnership with specific bacteria, setting up the biological N 2-fixation inroot nodules that supply the plant’s needs for N 2 (Mahmood and Athar, 2008;Mandal et al ., 2009). Mungbean beingdrought tolerant and short duration can grow well under varied conditions(irrigated and rainfed). Mungbean hasthe potential of producing higher seed yield from 1295 to 2961 kg ha -1 depending on the genotypes studied (Ullahtal., 2011; Bilal, 1994).
Phosphorus is one of the important plantmacronutrients, making up about 0.2% of a plant’s dry weight. It is an important component of key moleculessuch as nucleic acids, phospholipids and ATP, and consequently, plants cannotgrow without a reliable supply of this nutrient. P is also involved in controlling key enzymereactions and in the regulation of metabolic pathways (Theodorou and Plaxton,1993).
Phosphorus is present in seed andfruit in large quantities and is essential for the seed formation. It is known to stimulate root growth and isassociated with early maturity of crops. It not only improves the quality of fruits, forages, vegetables andgrains but also play role in disease resistance of plants.
(Brady and Weil, 1999). Potassium (K) is thethird macronutrient required for plant growth, after nitrogen (N) andphosphorus (P). Unlike N and P; K is not a component of cell structure.Instead, it exists in mobile ionic form, and acts primarily as a catalyst(Wallingford, 1980). Potassium has an important osmotic role in plants (Tisdaleand Beaton,1985) important function in arid environments for plantsmetabolism. Recently, the use of organicmaterials as fertilizers for crop production has received attention forsustainable crop productivity (Tejada et al ., 2009).
Organic materials holdgreat promise as a source of multiple nutrients and ability to improve soilcharacteristics (Moller, 2009). Organic farming preserves the ecosystem.Symbiotic life forms are cultured ensuring weed and pest control and optimumsoil biological activity which maintain soil fertility. The syntheticfertilizers are harmful for soil and aerial environment a threat to entireglobe, because the inorganic fertilizers mainly contain major nutrients NPK inlarge quantities and are neglecting the use of organic manures andbio-fertilizers and hence have paved the way for deterioration of soil healthand in turn ill-effects on plants, human being and livestock (Choudhry,2005). Legumes are highly responded tophosphatic fertilizer but high cost and timely availability of this fertilizeris problem. Balance use of fertilizer isimportant to obtain maximum seed yield. Therefore, the present study wasundertaken to estimate the effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers ongrowth and yield of mungbean under arid climate.
Objective: i)To study the effect of varying levels of inorganic fertilizers on growth yieldand quality of green gram.ii)To study the effect of varying levels of organic fertilizers on growth yieldand quality of different cultivars ofgreen gram.iii)Toworkout economics of different treatment 2. Review of literature2.
1Green gram descriptionGreengram (Vigna radiata L.) is one of the major pulses grown in India (Punjab) forits multipurpose uses such as vegetable, pulses, fodder and green manure crop. Itplays an important role in supporting soil fertility by improving soilproperties and fixing atmospheric nitrogen thus contribute to increased yieldof the crops.
Green gram is grown usually as rainfed crop and being photo-sensitive and short duration crop, can be grown during summer season (Tyagi et al., 2014).( Sekhon et al ., 2004) observed that mung beanis a hardy pulse crop which required hot and dry weather conditions and cloudyand continuo’s, heavy rain adversely affect the flowering and podding resultingin poor yield.2.2 Agronomic practicesForproper germination and establishment of the crop is ought to be grown on a wellprepared seed bed on a well drained loamy sand to sand loamy soil.
(Sekhon et al. 2004). The seed arerecommended to inoculate with rhizobium to increase grain yield by 12- 16 percent. (Kular, 2014). Kular in 2014 recommended that for cultivating of greengram in Punjab it should be cultivated in the first fortnight of July at a rowspacing of 30cm and plant distance of 10cm with 4-6 cm deep, after treating theseed with captanorthiram @ 3g per kg of seed to avoid seed borne disease.Irrigation can be applied when the rain fail and weeding should be completedafter four weeks of sowing to avoid weed infestations. The crop are toharvested when the pods are 80% mature with the help of a sickle and threshingafter sun drying for 2-3 days.2.
3Common pest and disease of green gramThecommon pest that infest green gram plants are aphids, whiteflies, thrips,jassids, flea- beetles , hairy caterpillar, pod – borerand semi looperwhich canbe controlled by insecticides such as Malathiom 50 EC, Metasystox 25EC(oxydemelon methyl ), Thiodan 35 EC ( endosulfon) or Ekalux 20 AF ( quinalphos)(Sekhon et al. 2004). The seriousdisease that infest this crops are mung bean yellow mosau virus which can bemanage by roguing it out at early growth stage and burning them and alsogrowing resistant varieties and Cercospora leaf spot ( CIS) caused bycercosporacruenta and C. Canescens , Anthracnose caused bycolletotrichumtindemuthianum .
for both the leaf spot and anthrawnose the seedscan be treated with captan or thiram on spraying with Dilhanc M-45 and growingresistant varieties ( Sekhon et al. 2004). 2.4 Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizer onyield and growth parameter of green gram and soil physical and chemicalproperties.Organicmatter are excellent source of plant available nutrients and this addition tothe soil could maintain high microbial population and activities ( Paswal et al., 1997 ; Zink and Allen, 1998).
(Nasiri et al,2011) observed that application of organic manure such aslivestock manure and crop residues , over a long period of time have been foundto bring about gradual improvement in soil and productivity and cropperformance The nutrient values of organic fertilizer varies according to theirdecomposition rate, application method, timing , incorporation time, watercontrol, time exposed to various elements like sun, rain and soil types.(Oregon state university, 2003).Theeffect of organic and inorganic fertilizer on cucumber and found out thatorganic treatment (10m³compost/ 54m²) gave the maximum yield than inorganictreatment. The yield for organic fertilizer was 7005 kg/dunum and for inorganicwas 6017 kg / dunum which means organic fertilizer have better effect on theoverall growth of plant that was studied by (Natsheh and Mousa et al, 2014). Another research on greengram nutrient status on application was conducted ( Meena et al., 2013). It showed that application of NPK up to 100%recommended dose, FYM up to 10 t ha-¹ and vermicompost up to 5 t ha-¹ significantlyincreased the number of pods per plant, seeds per pods, test weight, seedyield, straw yield and biological yield of mung bean over those treated with asmaller amount of inorganic, organic fertilizer and control during theapplication of organic and inorganic it also significantly improved the soil Nand P as compared to control however there was an effect on the K, Zn and Fecontent when organic fertilizer was applied but no significant effect onapplying inorganic fertilizer.Anotherexperiment conducted by (G.
O et al.,2012) on maize ( Zea mays L) shows that when organic fertilizer ( cow dung)and inorganic fertilizer ( NPK) was applied on the field significantly increase the overall growth of the plants over the control treatment. Both theorganic and inorganic fertilizer works in a different way due to their nutrientcontents and G.O mentioned that in the absence of N,P, k fertilizer cow dungmanure can be used and the fail that organic manures even though takes time toshow the outcome is very effective and more eco-friendly than inorganicfertilizer which works more rapidly than the former.
Bothorganic and inorganic fertilizer helps in the increase productivity of the cropyield but they also leave some both good and bad impact on the soil physicaland chemical properties.Organicfarming contain macro-nutrient, essential nutrient , vitamin , growth-promoting Indole acetic acid (IAA) , gibberellic acid ( GA), and beneficialmicro- organism( Sreenivasan et al ,2010). Experiment conducted in Bangladesh showed that excessive utilization ofchemical fertilizer have severely affected the soil properties ( Merhibbullahet al.
, 2005) . A long term field experiment (1989-2003) was conducted atAgronomy Research Farm ,Khumaltan,Lalitpur, Nepal on the effect of organic and inorganic fertilizer on rice underRice , wheat cropping system. ( Khadka etal ., 2008) reported that the roleuses of chemical fertilizer did not have much significant effect on the soilproperties while use of organic manure of 10 tone FYM ha-¹ , the total N,available p and organic content control but also found that it sustained thesoil fertility.within the soil were significantly improved as compared to othertreatment Imbalance use of inorganic fertilizers contribute to deterioration ofsoil quality as well as the environment at the same time it is essential tomeet the growing food demand of the soaring population by producing more crop yield . chemical fertilizer causesserious hazards and organic fertilizer takes time to have an effect on the soilproperties, therefore the only way to tackle this problem is to use integratethe use of organic and inorganicfertilizer which have proves to increase the microbial activities of the soilas well as the properties of the soil .
One of the example of this is anexperiment conducted on tomato in Mymensing , Bangladesh by Islam et al., 2017. Integrationof both organic and inorganic fertilizer was done in the tomato field and itwas observed that not only was the yield of tomato increased as compared to controlbut also found that it sustained the soil fertility.