Effects of Group Size

The Effect of Group Size towards Students’ Cheating Behavior Dandelion, Numeric L. Arabian, Margaret T. Leaders, Chelsea Maybugs,Jensen Manual, Jan Pauline Phial, Dense Gang You Ma Among students, one of the most prominent definitions for cheating is the act of taking an examination or a test In a dishonest manner through which one attempts to access answers In a fraudulent and Inappropriate way. Students begin to develop the unethical behavior as they set foot in middle school and peak through high school. Out of 10 middle school students admit to copying one’s homework, two thirds admit to cheat during exams, while 57-89% of college students admits that they have cheated at some point during their university/college days (Robinson, E..

Umbrage, R. , Swank.. & Faulkner, C. , 2004). Statistics show that the rate of cheating among students has dramatically increased over the last 60 years (Groves, 1936). Some identify cheating as a whimsical and harmless act, maintaining the belief that it Is right to engage In cheating (Brenna.T.

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. 2000). According to Michael Josephs, an ethicist, students nowadays are more prone to cheating . Most sources suggest that s the world grows into a colossal environment of competition, people, not only students, are more compelled to cheat in order to advance, remain competitive and to avoid being left out.

The results of the study Robinson, Umbrage, Swank & Faulkner (2004) conducted suggest that occasional cheating has become the norm; and this fact should attract some attention.When individuals are aware that they are surrounded with people who cheat, there is a tendency to consider and conform to cheating (Plosives, M. , Hansen. , L & Postcard.

, 201 2) showed findings suggesting that heating conformity (people conforming to cheat) and cheating awareness are two important factors in cheating. When one becomes aware of a situation where people people to conform to it. Even though the act of cheating is genuinely considered wrong, still, cheating has become rampant in universities and educational institutions worldwide?and the collective ways of people to conform to this becomes the culprit.It is important to understand that the power of conformity is capable of distorting our discernment of what is right and what is wrong.

Having a proper understanding of conformity gives ay to a more open mind: it gives people a stronger capacity to assess one’s actions based on his/her own proper Judgment. The researchers in this study are concerned with the effect of group size in conforming to cheating behavior. The objectives of the researchers are the following: 1 .To measure the effect of 5 confederates in a small group size on cheating behavior among students by measuring the number of people who conformed to cheating. 2.

To measure the effect of 5 confederates in a medium group size on cheating behavior among students by measuring the number of people who conformed to cheating. . To measure the effect of 5 confederates in a large group size on cheating 4. To determine whether being aware that the members of the group are cheating can increase the likelihood of cheating behavior.Cheating Behavior Cheating behavior is a phenomenon that is predominantly seen nowadays in our society, from schools marital fealty to the subtle ways of our government. In this study, the researchers aim to see if conformity is a factor in increasing cheating behavior. Different studies suggest that there are several factors that affect cheating behavior.

In a study conducted by Erin Robinson et. L in the year 2004, they tested the cheating habits of students in a certain university where they used predictors of cheating for urban settings and observed these impacts on a rural campus.The results reveal that the dynamics behind cheating may be universal in nature. Another study done by Richard Bernard et.

AY, done in the year 2004, examined the association between attitudes on cheating and cognitive moral development by using Rest’s Defining Issues Test, The Attitudes on Honesty Scale and Academic Integrity Index. The gathered data indicated that 66. 4% of the students reported that they had heated in high school, college or both, where psychology majors scored higher than business majors on the tests.With their use of logistic regression they have seen that the scores on the Attitudes on Honesty Scale and Academic Integrity Index associated with the self-reported cheating behavior was explored by David Retying and Hair Kramer in the year 2008, where survey and experimental vignette methods were behavior. The outcome showed that neutralizing attitudes influenced cheating behavior directly, but also indirectly, in where it increases the effects of individual attitudes. Observing others was also correlated with one’s own cheating behavior.In a study done by Nancy Day et.

AY in the year 2010, it determined that evidence exists that attributes of the classroom contexts play a part on predicting cheating attitudes and behavior. They conducted investigation on how three personality traits and two context variables affect business students’ attitudes toward cheating. The conclusion was that the interactions showed that conscientiousness, emotional stability and openness to experience, in combination with context variables, affected some attitudes towards cheating. Another study conducted by Yang in the year 2012 involving Chinese students’ cheating behavior, the results showed that factors such as attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control were positively associated with cheating behavior and the intention to cheat. Conformity Conformity refers to the act of changing one’s behavior to match the responses of others (Calling, R. B.

, & Goldstein, N. J. , 2014). Conformity is the tendency to align your attitudes, beliefs and behaviors with what is socially expected by the society and the environment surrounding an individual.It’s a powerful force that can take the form of overt social pressure or subtler unconscious influence.

As much as we like to think of ourselves as individuals, the fact is that we’re driven to fit in, and that usually means to stick with the status quo. Our related literatures such as the studies of accidental, R. B. , & Goldstein, N. J. , (2014), Postcard, T. Et al (2012), Brenna, T.

(2000) all points out that conformity, is indeed, a factor of cheating. People may conform to obtain a variety of reasons such as the desire to be liked or the desire to be right. Toke Postcard et. (2012) performed an experiment on conforming to cheating. Results showed that people are more compelled to cheat if they are aware that other members of the group are cheating as well. Increasing the awareness of cheating urges the participant to actually consider the act. In the aforementioned study, it supports the idea that when people become aware that the members of their group are committing the unethical act of cheating, they are more likely to conform and perform the act: which increases cheating behavior. Conformity and Group Size According to Tarpon (1996), conformity and large group size hastens abrupt decision aging.

The study of (Tarpon, E. 1996) showed that large groups such as church goers may have contradicting beliefs when they are not in church but have similar ones if they were. Each individual’s perspective then is transitory when placed in a group with predominantly similar perspectives, thus leading to conformity. Although the Relatively Independent state of large groups (everyone having different opinions) is stable, after a while people will eventually conform and enter the Rigid Conformity the majority in a large group possesses uniform opinions, it is already difficult to agrees with them.Factors such as a decrease in creativity and open-mindedness may lead to the transition from the Relatively Independent state to the Rigid Conformity state. However, Sash (1956) concludes that increasing the group size does not have a significant effect on group conformity because what is essential is the unanimous decision of the majority. Conversely, his study also concludes that the smaller the size of the opposing group (confederates), the lower level of conformity; yet by increasing the number of confederates by one, two or three, the level of uniformity increases substantially.Procedure Respondents of the study The researchers will select a class of forty Human Resource Development students and a class of Industrial Engineering with twelve students from De La Sale University Dissimilar as their respondents.

Five among these students in the HARD class and three from the II class will be asked to act as confederates while the remaining thirty-five students from the HARD class and nine students the II class shall stand as the genuine participants of the experiment.The professors handling the classes will also be informed about the said experiment and shall also stand as confederates. Setting The experiment will be held in a classroom at CUBA building and at a classroom in GO building. The researchers aim to achieve a normal classroom setting where the participants will have no idea that they are the subjects of the social experiment. The experiment will be conducted on the third and last week of September.

The experimenters will provide a mock quiz with ten items, a quiz extracted from their current topic in their course.The experimenters will also provide an answer key that ill show all of the incorrect answers in the quiz. Method The structure of the experiment will be shown as: The experimenters will ask two professors from different class with varying group size to help in the study through acting as confederates and by sparing them a maximum of twenty minutes from their class where the professors themselves shall proctor an exam on general psychology and engineering, exams to be provided by the researchers.The researchers will then ask for the list of the class and select five students that shall act as confederates, before the experiment the chosen infiltrates will be informed and debriefed of their exact role in the experiment they will be clued-in on what they shall do in the situations to be presented to them. They will also be asked to keep the confidentiality of the experiment an utmost priority before and during the experiment. In the schedule of the actual experiment, the professors will have with them; the test papers provided by the experimenters and the answer keys.

Shortly after distributing the test papers to the class, the professors will be asked by a member of the group of experimenters to abruptly desk. In the absence of the professors, one of the five confederates in each class will stand up and go to the professor’s desk and check whether or not he left the answer key, and upon discovering that the professor left the answer key, they will announce it in the whole class. After the announcement, two among the confederates from each class will follow the lead of the first one and will go to the professor’s desk with their test papers and they will copy the whole answer key.The last two confederates in each class will ask the confederates who were at the teacher’s desk to share their answers to them after they finished copying. After about five to ten minutes, the professors will come back to the room and the professors and the confederates will act as if nothing happened. Shortly after his return, the professors will be collecting the test papers and their class will be back to normal.

The results of the test of the genuine participants shall be checked.If whether they copied the whole answer key and cheated or if they chose to answer their quiz honestly without the assistance of the answer key provided by the experimenters. Each student’s score is based on the umber of his/her matched answers with the provided answer key.