Englishas the international language has crucial position in other status; it can beas first language, second language and foreign language.
Those parts dividebased on the competence through the reading materials related to teachinglearning process. Such PhanLe Ha (Ha, 2008)stated whenglobalization heavily relies on English, so English language teaching (ELT)solely relies on English teachers and English teaching learning, so what happensto English teachers and their teaching is an important question that needs to beexplored, particularly in the context of mobility and trans nationality. Moreover, teacher, teaching learning processand curricula are important aspects which are explored by education system.
Onthe other hand, what teachers needs, how teachers perceive themselves and howthey are represented material is also important to enhance the success of ELTfor teacher training and its pedagogy in international or national contexts.English has different position in Indonesia. English as foreign language givesown impression in teaching of English as an International language. It bringsto create different curricula implementation in school and the governmentbuilds a program of International Based School. Furthermore, this section explains the rules and the existence ofEnglish as International Language in teaching Learning in Indonesia due to thedifferentiation of curricula implementation and International Based School. Educationis meaningless without curriculum and to develop the quality of educationsystem and the students’ outcome, C has decided to create the best curriculum.But the Ministry of National Education also modifies several curriculums infour or more years in EFL.
It begins from the two newly curriculum recently. First,it starts with Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan(a School-Based Curriculum). School-Based Curriculum is a modification ofgenre-based curriculum that was introduced in 2004. It is also called as KTSP2004. School-Based Curriculum focuses on the standard competency, basiccompetency and their indicators. It does not included character building in itsdesign and the learning process tends to be teacher-centered and the learningevaluation is focused on the cognitive domain rather than the affective andpsychomotor. In 2006, a School-Based Curriculum has modified on the materialbased on the environment. It has similarity with KTSP 2004, but the name ofmodify curriculum is KTSP 2006.
It run well until 2012 and the Ministry ofNational Education announced that there is renew of curriculum in 2013. Secondis the renew curriculum which has been announced since 2012, it is known as’K-2013′ or the 2013 Curriculum. K-2013 is designed to build the characterbuilding and emphasized on the spiritual aspects. The learning paradigm isshifted from ‘students have knowledgebecause teacher transfers the knowledge to their students’ become ‘studentshave curiosity to get knowledge by themselves’. Moreover, the students areactively engaged in learning from different sources exceed in the teachers andthe educational units or institutions (Kemdikbud, 2013). K-2013 focuses on corecompetence (KI) and basic competence (KD). The core competence containsreligious, characters, factual, conceptual and procedural knowledge and processingand presenting in concrete and abstract domains.
On the other side, the basiccompetence transforms the core competence into observable cognition, affectionand action (Kemdikbud, 2013). The competence of K-2013 is concern in observing,questioning, exploring and experimenting, associating and analyzing andcommunicating. Whythose curriculums should be change? The reasons are from the teachers andstudents trends. There are two aspects about those trends; the first trendmainly looks from the changing of KTSP to K-13 as an innovative and creativecurriculum in English teaching practice for the education improvement inIndonesia. Yet, K-13 is more effective to explore the students’ ability andcompetence to find out their needs in learning process. The changing of those curriculum also affectto the way teachers and students viewed about English learning from traditional learning to modern pedagogic.
The second trend is viewedfrom the change of KTSP to K-13 as superficial and conceptual curriculum and thosehave the same effects with the previous curriculum changes. Between KTSP toK-13 do not have distinction but K-13 create students’ critical thinking infacing their problem during learning process. Furthermore, the knowledge andbelief system which teachers and students have will be linked to theirexperiences toward the implementation of the previous curriculum. Theexistence of English as International Language in teaching Learning inIndonesia, especially based on K-2013 is eliminate in primary school. Englishlesson is not the prior subject in primary school yet the Minister of NationalEducation has decided to put English as optional subject (Mulok). Thegovernment stated that the students of elementary school have to focus on BahasaIndonesia, if English lesson is a part of prior subject in Elementary schoolthey are not be expert on Bahasa Indonesia. In the reality, almost of studentsin Elementary school are more fluent to speak in English rather than BahasaIndonesia.
They prefer to be a part of English and they also join with Englishcourse after school has finished. Whereas, their Bahasa Indonesia are not asgood as their English when they communicate each other. That why the Ministerof National Education changes the position of English lesson to be optionalsubject (mulok). It is the explicitly reason of this change, but the impact ofEnglish lesson eliminate in elementary school is from the improvement ofEnglish as International Language, the government may know that English is notthe curial one to be mastering and we should improve Bahasa Indonesia as our nationalidentity. The government limits the use of English for enhancing BahasaIndonesia for the young generations. Nowadays, in certain elementary school,there is no English lesson for Final Examination. Some schools choose to omitEnglish lesson in student’s examination because they stated that English isoptional subject and it is not necessary to be a part of students’ examination.
The government policy seems to limit the English position for Indonesian younggenerations. The government prefers to develop Bahasa Indonesia and plantBahasa Indonesia deeper in the young generation. Thegovernment policy has positive and negative impact for this regulation. Thepositive impact is for our first language, Bahasa Indonesia.
The younggenerations may prefer to master in Bahasa Indonesia rather than English andthey keep their national identity as Indonesian. They will bring BahasaIndonesia as one of official language in the World if Bahasa Indonesia becomesthe larger language users. Is it possible? Of course, it will be.
There is noimpossible for bringing Bahasa Indonesia as official language in Asia. Thenegative impact of eliminating English in Elementary curriculum is enrichmentof foreign language of Indonesian generation. If English lesson does not existsince in primary school, the development of other language will be late. Theywill get difficulty in communication overseas and they never know about theculture of other countries. Yet if we learn about certain language, we have toknow about its culture. If we learn English we will also know about the cultureand the language so we are able to enrich our knowledge broader than before. Thereis no bad impact to learn English in Indonesia but the government should giveown regulation of English position in Indonesia. As the minister of nationalEducation and English teachers should point out an appropriate pedagogy for the teaching of English as an International language and itdepends upon local English language teaching professionals thinking globally but actinglocally.
Onthe other side, the government also builds International Based School but thegovernment has broken it up now. This International Based School is one of thebest programs which people are curious to be a part of its program. It providesfull English for the communication and the process of teaching learning in theclass. Even though the subject is not English, it must be in English.International Based school is very popular and people is like addicted withthis program.
The government creates International Based School for improvingthe English ability for Indonesian. The government sends some MoU to westerncountry where it will accept the government’s proposal to create InternationalBased School. However the government and western country make this programtogether and it has automatically political issue inside. Almost of parentprefer to join in International Based School yet they think it is the bestschool program to enhance their children knowledge about English. Even though,the school fee is very expensive, the parents are still on that way to sendtheir children in that school. All parents’ perception may be over to decidewhether National Based School or International Based School is the best. TheMinistry of National Education has deleted International Based school programdue to there is no more beneficial for its program.
It seems to make westerncountry get more benefit from its program. It involves politic, economic andother intention during the creating of International Based School program. Thisprogram is only for the trend that English nowadays as International language,so western people try to influence several countries to use English and buildthe political relation among each country. English here is as a tool for thegovernment to be the one of politic dimension. How about the curriculum ofInternational Based School? The curriculum is from our government but only thelanguage use English. Yet the government has not got the benefit of thisprogram so the government breaks International Based School Program up.Thoseexample above about the elimination of English Lesson in Elementary school as Mulok and the breaking up of International Based Schoolprogram show that English is not only a lesson in the school but English isskills. Everyone is able to speak and communicate with English.
Crystal (1997) stated that the number of people inthe world who communicate in English with international speakers is steadily rising compared to other language speakers. Crystal stressed with the fact that approximately 385 million people speak English as an international language, in fact has proven, English is now globally utilized. Moreover, English is also used by over one billion people who speak English as their second and foreign language to communicate with other second and foreign language users in spite of different culture and linguistic features. Inconclusion, the ultimate goal of designing and changing curriculum is not to design the best and ideal curriculum, but to set the curriculuminto teaching learning practice successfully. How teacher perceives thesechanges and the government initiative has an effect to the process ofcurriculum 2013 implementation. Nevertheless, this new curriculum dividesEnglish into core and elective class and students have to study a core classfor two periods of English subject and three to four periods if they areinterested in English as an elective class. In order to facilitate thecurriculum effects, the teachers as the implementers should show their willingness and capability to implement the curriculum by changing their mindset from traditional views of learning to modern pedagogic dimensions. Furthermore, through thesechanges, the constraints would become a new challenge rather than disturbances to the implementation.
That why the implementation of K-2013 in ELTpractices in the schools is considered to be partial biased and tends to betraditional in all levels. Tofigure out of this case, the situation of two curricula namely KTSP-2006 (SBC)and K-2013 are implemented in Indonesia brings little a chaotic atmosphere inteaching of English as an International language in Indonesia. Whereas those curriculumis a good decision nevertheless since the government has provide yet forteachers training regarding the curriculum implementation, even though theteachers find that the new curriculum is a bit hard to apply in the classroom.Furthermore, the learners’ success in EFL does not always depend on thecurriculum.
In contrast, many factors play significant roles in determininglearners’ success in EFL also, such as verbal, motivation, attitude, interest,etc. So that the control of international use of English is now shiftedfrom English speaking countries people to wider global community and the native speakers has turned to be the minority among Englishlanguage users.