epithelial disruption together with feedingcessation and starvation consequently the loss of body weight and highmortality. The low gut pH i.
e., acidic of locust and grasshopper may preventthe dissolution of the crystalline ?-endotoxin, which is normally dissolved andactivated by a high gut pH (Prior and Greathead, 1989). Nevertheless, it hasbeen demonstrated that crystals from one B.thuringiensis strain, dissolved readily in the gut juice of S.
gregaria but not in that of L. migratoria, although bacterialspecies nature have a very similar gut pH of around 5.3 (Stephan, 1992). This suggeststhat other factors, such as reducing conditions or gut enzyme, play importantrole in the dissolution process. The gut conditions of alkaline D.
maroccanus seem to allow thedissolution of the ?-endotoxin of B.thuringiensis strain, and therefore, strain and the host meet therequirements for insecticidal activity (Quesada-Morage et al., 2001).Broderick etal.
(2006) suggested that re-establishment an Enterobacter sp. That normally resides in the midgut microbialcommunity, restore B. thuringiensis mediatedkilling and paralysis of the insect. On the other hand the enteric bacteriaalone did not induce mortality in the absence of the B. thuringiensis Cry genetoxin that permeabilises the gut epithelium allowing their access to thehaemocoel.
Inoculated individuals might be due to disruption of epitheliuminitially which provided opportunity to enterogastric bacterium to gain accessand multiply in the hemolymph. This also suggests that B. thuringiensis was unable to multiply in the hemolymph butprovided catalytic support to enteric bacteria for the death of locust. Our observationis in accordance with Broderick et al.(2006) where they suggested the similar hypothesis.
It was evidenced that hemolymph protein of infectednymphs reduced initially during nymphal and early adult stages. In later stageof adult maturation, the protein level increased above the control adult. The effectof B. thuringiensis on reduction inhaemolyph protein and haemocytes due to water loss has been reported earlier inS. gregaria (Lee, 1961; Barakat et al., 2002) as well as in L.
migratoria (Webley, 1951; Hill andGoldworthy, 1968).Stevenson, (1959) reported that gut bacterialdiversity confers prevalence and resistance to invasion of foreign, pathogenicbacteria in S. gregaria anddetermines the impact of invasion resistance on host survival.
Serratia marcescens is pathogenic whichcause disease in dissert locusts. B.cereus is biocontrol agent have been recognized before thebacterium was identified, with some account suggesting that B. cereus spore may have already been inuse in ancient Egypt. The bacterium was isolate in 1901 by the Japanesebiologist Shigetane Ishiwatari during an investigation into wilt disease insilkworm and named it Bacillus sotto. Prior and Greathead, (1989) is observed that the bacterium, B. cereus is pathogenic andcaused the effect on mortality in inoculated locusts increased and weight lossalso evidenced. The low gut pH of locusts and grasshoppers may prevent thedissolution of the crystalline ?-endotoxin, which is normally dissolved andactivated by a high gut pH.
The?-endotoxin form pores in the membranes of epithelial cells causing disruptionof the insect gut epithelium and ?, ? endotoxin are effective against the fatbody, reproductive organ and other internal tissues. The final cause of insectdeath was due to be the spread of Bacilluscereus, once it gained access to the hemocoel and spread to the all otherinternal body parts after epithelial disruption, accompanied by feedingcessation leading to starvation and small body size. However, the highly potentcrystal toxin is pathogenic only in conjugation with the observation that B. cereus is able to multiply in theinsect haemolymph while entero-bacteria can be multiplied in it, suggestedthat, the B. cereus toxin free accessto the more favorable environment of the hemocoel of most of the insect, wherethey replicate, leading to septicemia and of the insect death host (Broderick et al.
, 2006).Zahran et al, (2011) is reported that the efficiency of six bacterialstrains to kill cotton leaf worm (Spodopteralittoralis), was isolated from dead spiny cotton bollworm (Earias insulana). The isolated bacterialstrain examined were identified in the genus Bacillus, six species were identified namely; B. anthracis.
B. cereus, B. fusiformis, B. pseudomucoides, B. subtilis andB. thuringiensis.
Some other thesebacilli are genetically related, e.g., B.cereus, B.
thuringiensis and B.anthracis, this observation supported that Bacillus species are present in the insect internal body organ. B.
cereus affects the developmental stages of the migratorylocust physiologically as well as morphologically. The characteristics ofprotein banding patter suggest that number of protein band appeared on the gelwere more as compared to might be due to recovery or immune response of theindividual as well as accumulation of bacterial protein (Zahran et al,. 2001)The characteristics ofelectrophoresis separation technique to protein banding pattern suggests that,the number of protein band appeared on the gel were less as compared to controlbut again repapered at later stages of development i.e., is suggested thatimmunoprotein are synthesi.
This might be due to recovery of storage protein inthe individuals having more immunity and the insect survived during later