Nhom 1 Analysis: S phan tich Chemical analysis of the woman’s dress revealed traces of blood. The book is an analysis of poverty and its causes. At the meeting they presented a detailed analysis of twelve schools. • analyse / • analyze • analyst • analytic = isolating • analytical • analytically Approach: Phuong phap, ti p c n We need to adopt a different approach to the problem What’s the best way of approaching this problem? • approachable / • unapproachable Area: Ph m vi hi u bi t, chuyen mon Software is not really my area of expertise Assess: ? anh gia The tests are designed to assess a child’s reading skills.It’s difficult to assess the effects of these changes. Interviews allow you to assess the suitability of candidates.
• assessable • assessment • reassess • reassessment Assume: Cho r ng, gi n nh Everything was quiet when I got home so I assumed that you had gone out. Let us assume for a moment that the plan succeeds. She would, he assumed, be home at the usual time. In this example we have assumed a unit price of $10. I had assumed him to be a Belgian.
• assumed • assuming • assumption Authority: Chuyen gia She is an authority on seventeenth-century English literature • authoritative • authoritatively ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] om -1- Nhom 1 Available: Co th mua nu c, s d ng nu c This information is available free on the Internet. The new drug is not yet available to the public. When will the information be made available? We’ll send you a copy as soon as it becomes available. • availability • unavailability • unavailable Benefit: L i th , l i ich He couldn’t see the benefit of arguing any longer.
I had the benefit of a good education For maximum benefit, take the tablets before meals. • beneficial • beneficiary Concept: Khai ni m He can’t grasp the basic concepts of mathematics Concepts such as ‘civilization’ and ‘government’ • conception conceptual • conceptualize • conceptually Consist: Bao g m, g m co A dessert consisting of fruit and cream (ch a n ng) The beauty of the city consists in its magnificent buildings. (chinh) • consistency / • inconsistency • consistent / • inconsistent • consistently / • inconsistently Constitute: (~establish, set up) Thi t l p, thanh l p The committee was constituted in 1974 by an Act of Parliament • constituency • constituent • constitution • constitutional / • unconstitutional • constitutionally / • unconstitutionally • constitutive ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] com -2- Nhom 1 Context: Trong hoan c nhThis speech needs to be set in the context of Britain in the 1960s. His decision can only be understood in context. • contextual • contextualization • contextualize • contextually Contract: H p n ng • contractor Create: T o ra, gay nen The snow created further problems Scientists disagree about how the universe was created.
The government plans to create more jobs for young people. • creation / • recreation • creative • creatively • creativity • creator • recreate Data: Thong tin Define: Ch c ch n I’ve heard rumours, but nothing definite Your duties are clearly defined in the contract. Can you define what it means to be an American? definable • definition • redefine • redefinition • undefined Derive: Nh n nu c, l y nu c t … tim th y ngu n g c t The name derives from Latin. The word ‘politics’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘city/ He derived great pleasure from painting • derivation • derivative ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected]
com -3- Nhom 1 Distribute: Phan ph i, phan phat The organization distributed food to the earthquake victims • distribution • distributional • distributive • distributor • redistribute • redistribution • redistributive Economic: Thu c kinh t The economy is in recession • economical • economically • economics economist • economy • uneconomic • uneconomical Environment: Moi tru ng An unhappy home environment can affect a child’s behaviour • environmental • environmentalism • environmentalist • environmentally Establish: Thanh l p, thi t l p, c ng c The committee was established in 1912 Let’s establish some ground rules. • established / • disestablish • establishment / • disestablishment Estimate: ? nh gia, nanh gia, u c lu ng I can give you a rough estimate of the amount of wood you will need Official government estimates of traffic growth over the next decade • estimation • overestimate • overestimation • underestimate inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] com -4- Nhom 1 Evident: Hi n nhien, ro rang (~obvious) It was evident from his voice that he was upset.
The growing interest in history is clearly evident in the number of people visiting museums and country houses • evidence • evidential • evidently Export: Xu t kh u 90% of the engines are exported to Europe • exporter Factor: Nhan t , y u t The result will depend on a number of different factors Finance: Tai chinh, ti n b c Finance for education comes from taxpayers • financial • financially • financier Formula: Cong th c • formulate / • reformulate • formulation / • reformulationFunction: Ch c nang The function of the heart is to pump blood through the body • functional • functionally Identify: Nh n ra, nh n di n (= ID) She was able to identify her attacker Many of those arrested refused to identify themselves (= would not say who they were). The gunman in Wednesday’s attack has been identified as Lee Giggs, an unemployed truck driver. • identifiable • identification ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected]
com -5- Nhom 1 Income: Thu nh p They receive a proportion of their income from the sale of goods and services Indicate: (~show, point) Ch ra, bi u l The signpost indicated the right road for us to followResearch indicates that eating habits are changing fast. • indication • indicative • indicator (=blinker) Invidual: Rieng r , rieng bi t We interviewed each individual member of the community • individualism • individualist • individualistic • individuality • individually Interpret: Gi i thich, lam sang t The students were asked to interpret the poem • interpretable • interpretation • interpretative • interpretive • misinterpret • misinterpretation • reinterpret • reinterpretation Involve: (~entail) Bao g m, dinh dang n n The test will involve answering questions about a photograph. The job involves my travelling all over the country.Many of the crimes involved drugs • involved • involvement • uninvolved Issue: V n n This is a big issue; we need more time to think about it • issuer ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] com -6- Nhom 1 Labour: Lao n ng (chan tay) The company wants to keep down labour costs • labor Legal: H p phap They are currently facing a long legal battle in the US courts • legality • legally • illegal • illegality • illegally Legislate: L p phap The government will legislate against discrimination in the workplace • legislation • legislative • legislator • legislature Major = most of/most = serious = huge >big We have encountered major problems majority Method: Phuong phap, cach th c A new method of solving the problem • methodical • methodically • methodological • methodologically • methodology Occur: (~happen) X y ra, x y n n (n t ng t) Something unexpected occurred According to the police, the shooting occurred at about 12.
30 a. m. • occurrence • reoccur Per cent: Ph n tram Poor families spend about 80 to 90 per cent of their income on food • percentage ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] com -7- Nhom 1 Period: Giai no n, kho ng th i gian The factory will be closed down over a 2-year period/a period of two years • periodic • periodical • periodicallyPolicy: Chinh sach, nu ng l i hanh nong (Chinh ph , ? ng, Nha Nu c…) They have had a significant change in policy on paternity leave. Pinciple: Nguyen t c I refuse to lie about it; it’s against my principles. Stick to your principles and tell him you won’t do it.
• principled • unprincipled Proceed = continue = go on = ti p t c = ti n hanh = ti n trinh We’re not sure whether we still want to proceed with the sale She sat down and proceeded to tell me about her skiing trip. He outlined his plans and then proceeded to explain them in more detail. Work is proceeding slowly. • procedural • procedure • proceeding • proceedsProcess: Qua trinh, s ti n tri n We’re in the process of selling our house • processing Require: (~need) ? oi h i, yeu c u what do you require of me? True marriage requires us to show trust and loyalty. Lentils do not require soaking before cooking.
(? u khong c n ngam…) • requirement Research: (v. n) Nghien c u To research into the causes of cancer I’ve done some research to find out the cheapest way of travelling there • researcher ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] com -8- Nhom 1 Respond: ? ap l i, hu ng ng When asked about the company’s future, the director responded that he remained optimistic • respondent • response • responsive responsively • responsiveness • unresponsive Role: Vai tro It is one of the greatest roles she has played The role of the teacher in the classroom This part of the brain plays an important role in learning. Section (V: c t, phan chia N: ph n c t ra) The library has a large biology section Sector (area, zone): Khu v c (kinh t , ki thu t) the manufacturing sector Significant: Quan tr ng, tr ng n i, n y y nghia It is significant that girls generally do better in examinations than boys There are no significant differences between the two groups of students. Your work has shown a significant improvement. • significance • significantly • signify insignificance • insignificant • insignificantly Similar: Tuong t My teaching style is similar to that of most other teachers. The two houses are similar in size The brothers look very similar. • similarity • similarly Source: Ngu n, ngu n g c.
Your local library will be a useful source of information. ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] com -9- Nhom 1 Specific: D t khoat, ro rang, chi ti t, chinh xac I gave you specific instructions ‘I’d like your help tomorrow. ’ ‘Can you be more specific’? A specific purpose/reason Could we arrange a specific time to meet? • specifically • specification • specificity • specifics • unidentifiableStructure: C u truc The grammatical structures of a language • structural • structurally • restructuring • restructure • unstructured Theory: Gi n nh, h c thuy t I have this theory that most people prefer being at work to being at home • theoretical • theoretically • theoretician • theorist Vary: Thay n i (m c n nh ) (ng ai, n i) The menu varies with the season Class numbers vary between 25 and 30.
What time do you start work? ’ ‘It varies. ’ The aerobics instructor varies the routine each week • variability • variable • variably • variance • variant • variation • varied • invariable • invariably ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] om – 10 – Nhom 2 Achieve: v. Thanh cong (~accomplish) Their background gives them little chance of achieving at school.
• achievable • achievement Acquire: Thu nu c, n t nu c She has acquired a good knowledge of English How long will it take to acquire the necessary skills? He has acquired a reputation for dishonesty. The company has just acquired new premises. • acquisition Administration: (~managing) S trong nom, s qu n ly; s cai qu n, s cai tr She has little experience in administration (= in organizing a business, etc. ). Teachers complain that more of their time is taken up with administration than with teaching. • admin administrative • administratively • administrator Affect: nh hu ng n n, tac n ng n n Your opinion will not affect my decision It’s a disease which affects many older people.
How will these changes affect us? • affective • affectively • unaffected Appropriate: (~suitable) Phu h p Appropriate for something: Jeans are not appropriate for a formal party. Appropriate to something: The book was written in a style appropriate to the age of the children. • appropriacy / • inappropriacy • appropriately • appropriateness • inappropriate • inappropriately • inappropriateness ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] com -1- Nhom 2 Aspect: Khia c nhShe felt she had looked at the problem from every aspect.
The book aims to cover all aspects of city life. Assist: (~help) Giup n We’ll do all we can to assist you. We will assist you in finding somewhere to live. We are looking for people who would be willing to assist in the group’s work. Anyone willing to assist can contact this number. • assistance • assistant • unassisted (=aided) Category: Nhom The results can be divided into three main categories. • categorization • categorize Chapter: Chuong (sach) Commission: M nh l nh, ra l nh The government has set up a commission of inquiry into the disturbances at the prison. commissioner (=police commissioner) Community: Phu ng, h i The local community was shocked by the murders.
Health workers based in the community (= working with people in a local area) Complex: (~complicated) Ph c t p A complex argument/problem/subject The complex structure of the human brain • complexity Compute: U c tinh The losses were computed at ? 5 million. • computable • computation • computational • computer • computing ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] com -2- Nhom 2 Conclude: (~end) K t thuc The programme concluded with Stravinsky’s ‘Rite of Spring’. He concluded by wishing everyone a safe trip homeShe concluded her speech with a quotation from Shakespeare. The concert concluded with a firework display. I would like to conclude by thanking you all for attending. • conclusion • conclusive / • inconclusive • conclusively / • inconclusively Conduct: Ti n hanh, t ch c They conducted a vigorous campaign for a shorter working week.
To conduct an experiment/an inquiry/a survey Consequence: (~result) K t qu To suffer/face/take the consequences of your actions This decision could have serious consequences for the industry Two hundred people lost their jobs as a direct consequence of the merger. If you make im angry, you’ll have to suffer the consequences. • consequent • consequently Construct (~build) (thu ng th b n ng) Xay d ng When was the bridge constructed? They constructed a shelter out of fallen branches. The building was constructed in 1930. • construction / • reconstruction • constructive • constructively • reconstruct Consumer: Khach hang Health-conscious consumers want more information about the food they buy • consume • consumption Credit: S khen ng i I can’t take all the credit for the show’s success—it was a team effort.
• creditor ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] com -3- Nhom 2 Culture: (Thu c) van hoaCultural differences between the two communities • cultural • culturally • cultured • uncultured Design(v. n) Phac th o, thi t k , ki u The magazine will appear in a new design from next month. There was a fault in the design of the aircraft. The machine’s unique design prevents it from overheating. • designer Distinct: (~diffirent) (distinction): Khac nhau The results of the survey fell into two distinct groups. Jamaican reggae music is quite distinct from North American jazz or blues.
This word has three distinct meanings. • distinction / • indistinct • distinctive / • distinctively • distinctly / • indistinctly • distinctnessElement: Y u t Cost was a key element in our decision Equate: Coi ngang, ngang v i Many people equate wealth with happiness. I don’t see how you can equate the two things. • equation Evaluate: (~assess) ? anh gia, u c lu ng We need to evaluate how well the policy is working Our research attempts to evaluate the effectiveness of the different drugs. • evaluation / • re-evaluation • evaluative • re-evaluate ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] com -4- Nhom 2 Feature: Net n c trung, tinh nang rieng An interesting feature of the city is the old market. Which features do you look for when choosing a car? Final: Cu i cungThey find each other in the final chapter of the book • finality • finalization • finalize • finally Focus (+on): T p trung (+vao) • refocus Impact: Tac n ng, nh hu ng Her speech made a profound impact on everyone. Latino singers have had a major impact on pop music this year.
Injury: Ch n thuong There were no injuries in the crash (= no people injured) • injure • injured • uninjured Institute: Vi n, H c Vi n • institution • institutional • institutionalization • institutionalize • institutionalized • institutionally Invest: ? u tu Now is a good time to invest in the property market • investment • investor • reinvest reinvestment ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] com -5- Nhom 2 Item: ? , v t Can I pay for each item separately? • itemize Journal: (~newspaper~magazine) Bao, t p chi Maintain: (~ keep) (~preserve )Gi The two countries have always maintained close relations. To maintain law and order/standards/a balance The army has been brought in to maintain order in the region. • maintenance Normal: Binh thu ng It’s normal to feel tired after such a long trip. It’s perfectly normal to feel some degree of stress at work.
That’s a fairly normal weight for someone of your height. Now that trains are running again things are back to normal.He should be able to lead a perfectly normal life. • normalcy • normality • normalization • normalize • normally / • abnormally • abnormal Obtain: (~get) L y nu c I finally managed to obtain a copy of the report He obtained a law degree from the University of California. • obtainable / • unobtainable Participate (~take part in) Tham gia She didn’t participate in the discussion • participant • participation • participatory Perceive = hi u (understad) = trong th y (see) = nh n th c, nh n th y She did not perceive herself as disabled. I perceived a change in his behaviour. The patient was perceived to have difficulty in breathing. perception ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected]
com -6- Nhom 2 Positive: T tin, n y hi v ng A positive attitude/outlook She tried to be more positive about her new job On the positive side, profits have increased. • positively Potential: Ti m tang, ti m nang A potential danger/threat A potential customer A number of potential buyers have expressed interest in the building. • potentially Previous: (~prior~before) Tru c No previous experience is necessary for this job. The car has only had one previous owner. She is his daughter from a previous marriage. • previously • previous to Primary: (~prime; main; most important; basic) chinhThe primary aim of this course is to improve your spoken English. Her primary responsibility is to train new employees. Our primary concern must be the children.
Good health care is of primary importance. • primarily Purchase: s mua ban Make a purchase (= buy something) Keep your receipt as proof of purchase. • purchaser • purchasing Range: Nhi u lo i (~variety) A range of colours/patterns There is a full range of activities for children The hotel offers a wide range of facilities. We discussed a wide range of subjects. ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] com -7- Nhom 2 Region: Vung mi nPeople in the regions should not have to travel to London to fly to the United States • regional • regionally Regulate: Ch nh non, quy n nh The activities of credit companies are regulated by law. Laws regulating advertising Babies find it difficult to regulate their body temperature. It is up to the regulating authority to put the measures into effect.
• regulation • regulator • regulatory • deregulate • deregulation • deregulatory • unregulated Relevant: (+to) Lien quan Education should be relevant to children’s needs. A relevant suggestion/question/point Do you have the relevant experience? Send me all the relevant information. irrelevance • irrelevancy • irrelevant • irrelevantly • relevance • relevantly Reside: (~live) Cu tru He returned to Britain in 1939, having resided abroad for many years. Their passports do not give them the right to reside in Britain • residence • residency • resident • residential ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] com -8- Nhom 2 Resource: Tai nguyen The exploitation of minerals and other natural resources We do not have the resources (= money) to update our computer software • resourceful • resourcefully • resourcefulness • under-resourced Restrict: (~limit) H n ch Restrict something to something Speed is restricted to 30 mph in towns.We restrict the number of students per class to 10. • restricted • restriction • restrictive • restrictively • unrestricted Secure: Ch c ch n, b o n m, an toan It’s not a very secure way to make a living.
The future of the company looks secure. The building is secure against intruders • securely • security • insecure • insecurely • insecurity Seek: (~find~looking for) Tim Highly qualified secretary seeks employment. They sought in vain for somewhere to shelter.
(…Tim ki m trong vo v ng…) • sought (past) Select: (~choose~chose) Ch n He hasn’t been selected for the team. • selection • selective • selectively • selectivity inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] com -9- • selector Nhom 2 Site: Vung n t (Xay d ng) A site has been chosen for the new school. Strategy: Chi n lu c It’s all part of an overall strategy to gain promotion • strategic • strategical • strategically • strategist Survey: Kh o sat A recent survey showed 75% of those questioned were in favour of the plan. Carry out a survey… Text: Ch (sach, bao, van b n) Highlight the area of text on screen and press the ‘delete’ key. textual Tradition: Truy n th ng The company has a long tradition of fine design. • traditional • traditionalist • traditionally • non-traditional Transfer: Di chuy n, s di chuy nHow can I transfer money from my bank account to his? • transferability • transferable • transference ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] com – 10 – Nhom 3 Alternative: S l a ch n You can be paid in cash weekly or by cheque monthly; those are the two alternatives • alternatively Circumstance: Hoan c nh, tru ng h p, tinh hu ng We were simply thrown together by circumstance on the long journey.
Comment: L i nh n xet, l i binh She made helpful comments on my work. • commentary • commentator Compensate: B i thu ng Her lawyers say she should be compensated for the suffering she had been caused. • compensation • compensatoryComponent: Thanh ph n Key components of the government’s plan are… Trust is a vital component in any relationship.
(quan tr ng…) Consent: (permission, agreement) S n ng i He is charged with taking a car without the owner’s consent. • consensus • consent Considerable: (~significant)? ang k , l n lao (amount, size, importance, etc. ) The project wasted a considerable amount of time and money The damage has been considerable. Considerable progress has been made in finding a cure for the disease. • considerably Constant: Thu ng xuyen (kien tri, chung th y) Babies need constant attention This entrance is in constant use. She’s in constant pain.
constancy • constantly • inconstancy • inconstant ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] com -1- Nhom 3 Constrain: B t ep She felt constrained from continuing by the threat of losing her job. To constrain someone to do something: ep bu c ai lam vi c gi Regulations that constrain industry I’m constrained by decisions made in the past. The evidence was so compelling that he felt constrained to accept it.
The company said that it was constrained to raise prices. • constraint • unconstrained Contribute: ? ong gop, gop ph n We contributed ? 5000 to the earthquake fund. • contribution • contributor Conventional: Tinh truy n th ngIt’s not a hotel, in the conventional sense, but rather a whole village turned into a hotel. • convene • convention • conventionality • conventionally • unconventional • unconventionality • unconventionally Coordinate: S ph i h p, h p tac A pamphlet produced by the government in coordination with (= working together with) the Sports Council • coordination • coordinator Core: Nhan, loi, nong c t Concern for the environment is at the core of our policies. Corporate: (thu c) t ch c corporate finance/planning/strategy The law applies to both individuals and corporate bodies.
• corporation ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] om -2- Nhom 3 Corresponding: Tuong ng, n i v i A change in the money supply brings a corresponding change in expenditure. Profits have risen by 15 per cent compared with the corresponding period last year. • correspond • correspondence • correspondingly Criteria: Tieu chu n What criteria are used for assessing a student’s ability? Deduce: (~infer )Suy lu n, suy di n From the contents of his shopping basket, I deduced that he was single. We can deduce a lot from what people choose to buy. • deducible • deduction Demonstrate: Ch ng minh, gi i thich (show) Let me demonstrate to you some of the difficulties we are facing.
The theories were demonstrated to be false. These problems demonstrate the importance of planning. She demonstrated how to use the new software. • demo • demonstrable • demonstrably • demonstrate • demonstration • demonstrative • demonstratively • demonstrator Document: Tu li u (in tren gi y) • documentation Dominant: M nh nh t, quan tr ng nh t, nang luu i nh t The dominant feature of the room was the large fireplace.
• dominance • dominate • domination ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] com -3- Nhom 3 Emphasis: (~stress ) T m quan tr ng The emphasis is very much on learning the spoken language.Schools are starting to place/put greater emphasis on passing exams. To put/lay/place emphasis on something We provide all types of information, with an emphasis on legal advice. • emphasize • emphatic • emphatically Ensure: B o n m, b o hi m Victory ensured them a place in the final. Exclude: Ngan ch n, lo i tr Try excluding fat from your diet.
Buses run every hour, Sundays excluded. Women are still excluded from the club. • excluding • exclusion • exclusionary • exclusive • exclusively • exclusiveness Framework: Khuon kh We are currently exploring new approaches within existing frameworks of practice and thinking Fund: Qu • funder funding Illustrate: Minh h a An illustrated children’s book His lecture was illustrated with photos taken during the expedition.
This new discovery illustrates how little we know about early human history. • illustration • illustrative ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] com -4- Nhom 3 Immigrate: Nh p cu About 6. 6 million people immigrated to the United States in the 1970s. • immigrant • immigration • immigration control Imply: Ng i Are you implying (that) I am wrong? imply something His silence seemed to imply agreement. It was implied that we were at fault. An implied criticism (ng i ch trich) Initial: ? u tien, ban n uIn the initial stages (= at the beginning) of the campaig My initial reaction was to decline the offer. Initially, the system worked well.
• initially Instance: Vi d In most instances, there will be no need for further treatment. Many teenagers earn money, for instance by babysitting or cleaning cars. The report highlights a number of instances of injustice.
Interaction: Giao ti p Our work involves a lot of interaction with the customers. The only thing he interacts with is his computer! Teachers have a limited amount of time to interact with each child. • interact • interactive • interactively • interactivity Justification: Bi n minhI can see no possible justification for any further tax increases. There’s no justification for treating her so badly. • justifiable • justifiably • justified • justify • unjustified ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] com -5- Nhom 3 Layer: S p l p The potatoes are layered with onion.
Link: M t xich, s k t n i Police suspect there may be a link between the two murders. • linkage Locate: (~site) T a l c, n t v tri be located in/near/on, etc They located their headquarters in Swindon. • located • location • relocate • relocation Maximise: (~maximase) T i na hoa • max • maximization • maximum Minor: Nh , khong quan tr ng (>< large)Women played a relatively minor role in the organization. • minority Negative (~ bad ~ harmful) X u, gay h i Terrorist threats have had a very negative impact on tourism. The crisis had a negative effect on trade. The whole experience was definitely more positive than negative. • negate • negatively Outcome: K t lu n, k t qu We are waiting to hear the final outcome of the negotiations. We are confident of a successful outcome.
Partnership: Quan h n ng nghi p He developed his own program in partnership with an American expert. • partner ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] com -6- Nhom 3 Philosophy: Tri t h c • philosopher philosophic • philosophical • philosophically • philosophize • philosophizing Physical: Th ch t (adj) He tends to avoid all physical contact.
• physically Proportion: Ph n, t l Water covers a large proportion of the earth’s surface. The proportion of regular smokers increases with age. A higher proportion of Americans go on to higher education than is the case in Britain. Children make up a large proportion of the world’s population. • proportional • proportionally • proportionate • proportionately • disproportion • disproportionate • disproportionately Published: Xu t b n The first edition was published in 2007.
• publisher publishing • unpublished Reaction: Ph n ng What was his reaction to the news? People can react badly to certain food additives. (…ph gia th c ph m) • react • reactionary • reactivate • reactivation ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] com -7- • reactive • reactor = nuclear reactor Registered: ? a nu c nang ki The ship was registered in Panama • registration Nhom 3 Rely: Tin tu ng, d a vao (+on, upon) These days we rely heavily on computers to organize / organizing our work. • reliability • reliable • reliably • reliance • reliant • unreliability • unreliable Remove: D i, di chuy n, nu i, xoa He removed his hand from her shoulder.Three children were removed from the school for persistent bad behaviour. • removable • removal Scheme: Am muu, i n , k ho ch A local scheme for recycling newspapers To introduce/operate a scheme to improve links between schools and industry • schematic • schematically Sequence: S n i ti p, s lien ti p He described the sequence of events leading up to the robbery.
(…v cu p) I got my slides mixed up and they appeared out of sequence. • sequencing • sequential • sequentially Sex: Gi i tinh How can you tell what sex a fish is? • sexism • sexual ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] com -8- • sexuality • sexually Nhom 3Shift: Thay n i (tinh tinh, v tri, suy nghi, b n ch t, hinh dang) There has been a dramatic shift in public opinion on this matter. Public attitudes towards marriage have shifted over the past 50 years.
Specify: Ch ro, ghi ro Remember to specify your size when ordering clothes. Forms must be returned by the specified date. • specifiable • unspecified Sufficient: ? Allow sufficient time to get there. These reasons are not sufficient to justify the ban. Is ? 100 sufficient for your expenses? She didn’t have sufficient time to answer all the questions. I was sufficiently close to hear what they were saying.
• insufficiency • insufficient insufficiently • sufficiency • sufficiently Task: Nhi m v , ph n s Our first task is to set up a communications system. I was given the task of sorting out all the stuff in the garage Getting hold of this information was no easy task (= was difficult). Technical: (thu c) k thu t, chuyen mon We offer free technical support for those buying our software. Techniques: K x o, phuong phap k thu t, ki nang Her technique has improved a lot over the past season.
Technology: K thu t h c,cong ngh h c The company has invested in the latest technology. • technically • technological • technologically ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] om -9- Nhom 3 Valid: H p l , h p li She had valid reasons for not supporting the proposals. The point you make is perfectly valid. A valid argument • invalidate • invalidation • invalidity • validate • validation • validity • validly Volume: Tuy n t p, t ng s lu ng, t ng lu ng How do you measure the volume of a gas This work has grown in volume recently.
?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] com – 10 – Nhom 4 Access: Truy c p You need a password to get access to the computer system. • accessibility • accessible • inaccessibility • inaccessible Adequate: ? I didn’t have adequate time to prepare. The room was small but adequate.He didn’t give an adequate answer to the question. Adequate for something The space available is not adequate for our needs. Adequate to do something training that is adequate to meet the future needs of industry • adequacy • adequately • inadequacy • inadequate • inadequately Annual: Thu ng nien An average annual growth rate of 8% • annually Apparent: Ro rang, hi n nhien It soon became apparent that she had lost interest in the project. Suddenly, for no apparent reason (= without a reason) he started screaming and shouting.
Apparent (from something) (that…) It was apparent from her face that she was really upset.Apparent (to somebody) (that…) It soon became apparent to everyone that he couldn’t sing. • apparently Approximate: X p x The cost given is only approximate. • approximately • approximation ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] com -1- Nhom 4 Attitude: Thai n , quan ni m To have a good/bad/positive/negative attitude towards somebody/something The government’s attitude towards single parents If you want to pass your exams you’d better change your attitude! You’re taking a pretty selfish attitude over this, aren’t you? He has a very bad attitude to/towards work.
Attribute: Quy cho, cho r ng (n c bi t la noi, vi t, v smth) She attributes her success to hard work and a little luck. • attributable • attribution Civil: N i b • civilly Code: B lu t It’s written in code. Commitment: L i h a, rang bu c She doesn’t want to make a big emotional commitment to Steve at the moment The company’s commitment to providing quality at a reasonable price has been vital to its success. • commit • committed Communicate: Giao ti p, lien l c We only communicate by email. To communicate information/a message to somebody Has the news been communicated to the staff yet? Dolphins use sound to communicate with each other. communicable • communication • communicative Concentrate: S t p trung; noi t p trung A concentration of industry in the north of the country • concentrated • concentration ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] com -2- Nhom 4 Conference: H i ngh , s ban b c She is attending a three-day conference on AIDS education • confer Contrast: S khac bi t, S tuong ph n Contrast (between A and B) There is an obvious contrast between the cultures of East and West.
Contrast (to somebody/something) The company lost $7 million this quarter in contrast to a profit of $6. 2 million a year earlier. • contrasting • contrastive Cycle: Chu ki, chu trinhThey could not break the cycle of harvest failure, food shortage, price increase and misery. • cyclic • cyclical • cyclically Debate: Cu c tranh lu n, cu c th o lu n The motion under debate (= being discussed) was put to a vote. After a long debate, Congress approved the proposal.
• debatable • debating Despite: M c du Her voice was shaking despite all her efforts to control it Dimension: Kich c (size, cao, r ng, dai,…) We measured the dimensions of the kitchen. • -dimensional (adj) having the number of dimensions mentioned (ex: a multidimensional model) • multidimensional ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] com -3- Nhom 4Domestic: Trong nu c Output consists of both exports and sales on the domestic market. • domestically • domesticate • domesticated • domestication Emerge: (~transpire) L ra, ti t l ra (m t bi m t, m t s ki n.. ) It emerged that the company was going to be sold. No new evidence emerged during the investigation. A figure emerged from the shadows.
• emergence • emergent Error: ~ Mistake: L i Error in something There are too many errors in your work. Error in doing something I think you have made an error in calculating the total. • erroneous • erroneously Ethnic: (thu c) b t c ethnic Albanians living in Germany • ethnically • ethnicityGoal: M c tieu Our ultimate goal must be the preservation of the environment.
Grant: Tr c p The bank finally granted me a ? 500 loan. • granted Hence = so = vi th nen = therefore I love SP so much, hence I try to be the her Mr. Right. He’s got an interview today, hence the suit. ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] com -4- Nhom 4 Hypothesis: Gi thuy t There is little evidence to support these hypotheses. • hypothesize • hypothetical • hypothetically Implement: (~carry out) Ap d ng, thi hanh (offically) Our new computerized system will soon be fully implemented. A new work programme for young people will be implemented • implementationImplication: S keo theo, s dinh liu, h qu (effect? ) Financial/health implications They failed to consider the wider implications of their actions.
This scheme has serious implications for the local economy. They failed to consider the wider implications of their actions. • implicate Impose: Ap n t, ap d ng She is always trying to impose her opinion on/upon other people The time limits are imposed on us by factors outside our control. (to impose upon someone’s kindness — l i d ng long t t c a ai) I don’t want them to impose their religious beliefs on my children. • imposition Integrate: H p nh t ~ Combine An integrated databaseIntegrate into/with something These programs will integrate with your existing software. Integrate A (into/with B)| integrate A and B These programs can be integrated with your existing software. Plans to integrate the two schools • integrated • integration Internal: N i, n i b The internal structure of a building • internalization ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected]
com -5- • internalize • internally Nhom 4 Investigate: ? i u tra, nghien c u This is not the first time he has been investigated by the police for fraud. The FBI has been called in to investigate. Police are investigating possible links between the murders.
Police are investigating what happened. He has been questioned by detectives investigating Jenkins’ murder. • investigation • investigative • investigator • investigatory Job: Ngh nghi p She took a job as a waitress.
Label: Nhan hi u He’ll only wear clothes with a designer label. Mechanism: May moc, co ch (nghia nen va bong) Pain acts as a natural defence mechanism. Obvious: Ro rang, ranh m ch, hi n nhien • obviously • obviousness Occupational: (thu c) ngh nghi p Occupational disease • occupancy • occupant • occupation • occupationally • occupied • occupier • occupy Option: S l a ch n There are various options open to you.
inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] com -6- Nhom 4 (various = variety of) • optional Output: S n ph m Manufacturing output has increased by 8%. Over the past year the factory’s output has fallen by 15%. Overall: (~bib overalls) T ng l i, toan th (adj) There will be winners in each of three age groups, and one overall winner. An overall improvement in standards of living (= affecting everyone) The overall effect We lost the first game, but won overall. Parallel: Song song, tuong t The road and the canal are parallel to each other. Parallel adverb The road and the canal run parallel to each other. The plane flew parallel to the coast.
unparalleled Parameter: Tham s (set/define the parameters) We had to work within the parameters that had already been established. Phase: Giai no n, th i ki (~time, moment) She’s going through a difficult phase. The wedding marked the beginning of a new phase in Emma’s life. The first phase of the project is scheduled for completion next year. My younger daughter is going through a phase of only wearing black.
Predict: (~forecast) D noan She predicted (that) the election result would be close. They predicted that the temperature would reach 80 degrees today. • predictability • predictable • predictably prediction • unpredictability • unpredictable ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] com -7- • unpredictably Nhom 4 Principal: Chinh, ch y u My principal concern is to get the job done fast. Her principal reason for moving is to be nearer her mother. New roads will link the principal cities of the area.
• principally Prior ~ before (adj) She will be unable to attend because of a prior engagement. The course requires no prior knowledge of Spanish. Visits are by prior arrangement. Please give us prior notice if you need an evening meal. During the week prior to the meeting Although not essential (c n thi t, quan tr ng? , some prior knowledge of statistics is desirable (ong mu n) Professional: (=pro) Chuyen nghi p He dealt with the problem in a highly professional way. • pro • professionalism • professionally Project: D an, cong trinh nghien c u To set up a project to computerize the library system • projection Promote: (~encourage) Khuy n khich A campaign to promote awareness (nh n th c) of environmental issues Policies to promote economic growth • promoter • promotion Regime: Ch n , chinh th Resolve: (~settle, solve) Gi i quy t Both sides met in order to try to resolve their differences.
To resolve an issue/a dispute/a conflict/a crisis inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] com -8- Nhom 4 Be patient and the situation may resolve itself. An attempt to resolve the dispute (M t s c g ng gi i quy t tranh ch p) • resolution • unresolved Retain: (~preserve) Gi To retain your independence He struggled to retain control of the situation. The house retains much of its original charm. She retained her tennis title for the third year. This information is no longer retained within the computer’s main memory. She has a good memory and finds it easy to retain facts.
The council will retain control of the school. He struggled to retain control of the situation. • retainer • retention retentive Series: Lo t, day, chu i The first episode of the new series is on Saturday.
Statistic (stats/star): S li u th ng ke According to official statistics the disease killed over 500 people. • statistical • statistically • statistician Status: ? a v , than ph n Women are only asking to be given equal status with men. Stress: Ap l c Things can easily go wrong when people are under stress. • stressed • stressed out • stressful • unstressed Subsequent: ? n sau, theo sau, x y sa sau (>< previous) Developments on this issue will be dealt with in a subsequent report. Aubsequent generations ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] com 9- Nhom 4 Subsequent events confirmed our doubts.
• subsequently (~later) The original interview notes were subsequently lost. Subsequently, new guidelines were issued to all employees. He subsequently became chairman of the party. Sum: T ng s (ti n) Huge sums have been invested in this project. Summary: Tom t t In summary, this was a disappointing performance. The following is a summary of our conclusions.
• summarily • summarize • summation • sum Undertake: Nh n lam, cam k t I cant undertake to do that: toi khong th nh n lam ni u no The company has announced that it will undertake a full investigation into the accident. • undertaking undertook ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] com – 10 – Nhom 5 Academic: Co tinh ch t h c thu t The students return in October for the start of the new academic year. • academe • academia • academically • academy Adjustment: S ni u ch nh I’ve made a few adjustments to the design. • adjust • readjust • readjustment Alter: Thay n i, bi n n i (n i, ngo i) Prices did not alter significantly during 2007.
He had altered so much I scarcely recognized him. Alter somebody/something It doesn’t alter the way I feel. Nothing can alter the fact that we are to blame. • alterable • alteration • alternate • alternately • alternation • unalterable unaltered Amend: S a ch a l i (n i v i van b n: Lu t, h p n ng, tai li u) The contract has now been amended.
• amendment Aware: Nh n th y, Nh n bi t As far as I’m aware, nobody has done anything about it. Aware of something I don’t think people are really aware of just how much it costs. He was well aware of the problem.
Everybody should be made aware of the risks involved. Aware that… Were you aware that something was wrong? • awareness • unaware • unawareness ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] com -1- Nhom 5 Capacity: (~skilled, competent ) Co tai, co nang l c, co kh nang Capable of something You are capable of better work than this.Capable of doing something He’s quite capable of lying to get out of trouble. I’m perfectly capable of doing it myself, thank you. • incapacitate Challenge: S khu c t It was a direct challenge to the president’s authority.
• challenged • challenger • challenging Clause: ? i u kho n (trong hi p u c, b lu t…) There is a clause in the contract forbidding tenants to sublet. Compound: H p ch t, t ghep… (th g m 2 th tr len h p thanh) Common salt is a compound of sodium and chlorine. Conflict: S xung n t, n i l p, s va ch m John often comes into conflict with his boss.
She found herself in conflict with her parents over her future career.The government has done nothing to resolve the conflict over nurses’ pay. Consultation: S tham kh o, ban b c, s th o lu n The decision was taken after close consultation with local residents. • consult • consultancy • consultant • consultative Contact: S lien l c, lien h She’s lost contact with her son. I finally made contact her in Paris. Have you kept in contact with any of your friends from college? The organization put me in contact with other people in a similar position. • contactable Decline: S suy s p, tan t , suy tan The town fell into (a) after the mine closed. Industry in Britain has been in decline since the 1970s.
inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] com -2- Nhom 5 Discretion: S t do lam theo y minh, s tuy i I’ll leave it up to you to use your discretion. • discrete • discretely • discreteness • discretionary • indiscretion Draft: B n phac th o I’ve made a rough draft of the letter. (phac th o nhap) The legislation is still in draft form.
• redraft Enable: (~allow): Lam cho co th (help? ) The software enables you to create your own DVDs. Insulin enables the body to use and store sugar. Energy: Nang lu ng It is important to conserve energy. • energetic • energetically Enforce: Ep bu c.
(obey: tuan theo)The legislation will be difficult to enforce. It is the duty of the police to enforce the law. United Nations troops enforced a ceasefire in the area. (l nh ng ng b n) • enforceable • enforced • enforcement Entity: Th c th , s t n t i These countries can no longer be viewed as a single entity.
The unit has become part of a larger department and no longer exists as a separate entity. Equivalent: Tuong nuong 250 grams or an equivalent amount in ouncesequivalent to something Eight kilometres is roughly equivalent to five miles. • equivalence ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] com -3- Nhom 5Evolution: Ti n hoa, ti n tri n (qua trinh) Darwin’s theory of evolution • evolutionarily • evolutionary • evolutionism • evolutionist • evolve Expansion: S m r ng, s phat tri n The expansion of higher education will continue. • expand • expansionism • expansionist • expansive • expansively • expansiveness Expose: (~reveal ) V ch tr n, phoi bay My job as a journalist is to expose the truth. Expose something to somebody He did not want to expose his fears and insecurity to anyone. • exposed • exposure External: ngoai, ben ngoai The lotion is for external use only (= only for the skin and must not be swallowed).
externality • externalization • externalize • externally Facilitate: Lam cho d dang, kh thi hon The new trade agreement should facilitate more rapid economic growth. • facilitation • facilitator • facility ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] com -4- Nhom 5 Fundamental: (~basic, essential ) Co b n, co s , ch y u There is a fundamental difference between the two points of view. A fundamental change in the organization of health services was required.
• fundamentally Generate: Sinh ra, phat ra We need someone to generate new ideas. Generation: Th h I often wonder what future generations will make of our efforts.Image: Hinh tu ng The aim is to improve the public image of the police. • imagery Liberal: Khoan dung, khoan h ng, dung hoa A liberal attitude Her parents were very liberal.
• liberalism • liberalization • liberalize • liberally • liberate • liberated • liberation • liberator Licence: Gi y phep A licence for the software You need a licence to fish in this river. • unlicensed Logic: Lo gic, tinh lo gic I fail to see the logic behind his argument. • illogical / • logical • illogicality • illogically ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected] com -5- Nhom 5 • logically • logician Margin: s khac nhau trong s phi u b uHe won by a narrow margin. She beat the other runners by a margin of ten seconds. • marginal • marginally Medical: (thu c) Y, Y h c Medical school: tru ng y A medical officer: quan y si • medically Mental: (thu c) tri tu , (thu c) tri oc I made a mental note to talk to her about it He has a complete mental block (= difficulty in understanding or remembering) when it comes to physics. • mentality • mentally Modify: (~adjust) Lam d u nh , xoa d u; (~ adapt): S a n i, thay n i The software we use has been modified for us. • modification • unmodified Monitor: Quan sat, theo doi (s thay n i) Network: M ng lu i, h th ngA network of veins Notion: Khai ni m, ni m, ni m tin, quan ni m She had only a vague notion of what might happen.
Notion (that…) I have to reject the notion that greed can be a good thing. Objective: Khach quan I can’t be objective when I judge my daughter’s work. • objectively • objectivity ?inh Nho Hi p – [email protected]
com -6- Nhom 5 Orientation: S n nh hu ng He’s very secretive about his political orientation. orientation to/towards something Companies have been forced into a greater orientation to the market. • orient • orientate • reorient • reorientation Perspective: (~viewpoint) Quan ni m, goc nhin nh n