Education and Social Change Education in Technical Sense. Is the process by which society; through schools, colleges, universities, and other institutions, deliberately transmits its cultural heritage – its accumulated knowledge, values, and skills – from one generation to another. Social Change * a response to many type of change that take place on the social and non-social environment * Generally affected by the agents of socialization John Dewey * A prominent American philosopher and professor of the late 1800s and early 1900s * Father of Progressivism Progressivism was derived from pragmatism *John Dewey wrote the Essay on “Education and Social Change* EDUCATION AND SOCIAL CHANGE * “How schools” participate in the Social Change * Dewey supports the notion that society is constantly changing, and that education reflects, generates, and guides social change. * *There is some confusion in how the school lead the society *Definition by the “Conservatives” Conservatives Those People who are considered to be traditionalists. They want the old ways rather than the new ways. Conservatives are opposed to modernism and progressivism * Conservatives believe that schools should not influence or guide social change * They favor older types of study and “disciplinary methods” in schools (Dewey, 2001, p. 335). “Impotence of Education” * Those who represent dominant and economic political regime, together with the conservatives, believes that education does not influence social order or social change. * Economy is the influence, and education merely reflects this social order and the dominant economic class. * Nothing can hange without overthrowing this dominant economic class and replacing it with another, not even for education. * Dewey argues that if all of this were true, then any coup of the current dominant economic class would also have to bring with it other changes in the morals, mentality, and culture of society so that this new system/social order can survive * But Dewey finds no evidence that an economic change can solely make these other kinds of changes in society * Schools shape morals, mentality, and culture in agreement with the economic class. Education still plays a vital role in social change * Dewey states that schools and educators can: Dewey states that schools and educators can: a) continue to influence society without exploring b) employ a scientific method of teaching and learning that corresponds with the cultural forces that learning that corresponds with the cultural forces that cause social change. ) take a conservative approach and make schools a force of maintaining old order and rejecting any new a force of maintaining old order and rejecting any new forces that steer society away from this old social order. Democracy * Since Dewey argues that education infulences social change, then it must have some “frame of reference,” or else education would be meaningless. * Democracy was the frame of reference No clear definition but involves active participation for society * Education was founded on the principle of equal opportunity * Acting and making decisions together helps build a better society. Psychosocial Development Theory * Erik Erikson * Based on an individual’s development * Trust vs Mistrust * Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt * Initiative vs Guilt * Industry vs Inferiority * Identity vs Role Confusion * Intimacy vs Isolation * Generativity vs Stagnation * Integrity vs Despair SUMMARY * John Dewey founded Progressivism Progressivism is the educational theory that supports active learning * John Dewey’s essay “Education and Social Change” tells us about how schools participate in Social Change * Conservatives disagree with Dewey because they believe that School should not affect the individual or the society * Some believe that it was the economy that’s responsible for social change and education reflects the social orders * Dewey presented his points and made a strong point that what the Conservatives and others were pointing was wrong * Educational and Social change has a symbiotic relationship, they benefit from each other * Dewey wanted primarily was Educational Democracy * Erik Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development helps us understand how an individual develops and understand himself, thus, he finds his position in the society.