Ergonomics Organizational Ergonomics

QUESTION 4. DICUSS ERGONOMICS. HOW IS ERGONOMICS RELATED TO QUALITY? Ergonomics is also known as human factors engineering. It is the study concerned with the understanding of the interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theoretical principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well being and overall system performance. Ergonomics is the study of work in relation to the environment in which it is performed (the workplace) and those who perform it (workers).It is used to determine how the workplace can be designed or adapted to the worker in order to prevent a variety of health problems and to increase efficiency as well as quality of products and services.

The study helps in understanding how work is done and how to work better towards quality improvement. Domains of Specialization Ergonomics denotes the science of work; it is a systems-oriented discipline, which now applies to all aspects of human activity.Ergonomists must have a broad understanding of the full scope of the discipline, taking into account the physical, cognitive, social, organizational, environmental and other relevant factors since domains of specialization represent deeper competencies in specific human attributes or characteristics of human interaction:- •Physical Ergonomics Physical ergonomics is concerned with human anatomical, anthropometric, physiological and biomechanical characteristics as they relate to physical activity.The relevant topics include working postures, materials handling, repetitive movements, work-related musculoskeletal disorders, workplace layout, safety and health. •Cognitive Ergonomics Cognitive ergonomics is concerned with mental processes, such as perception, memory, reasoning, and motor response, as they affect interactions among humans and other elements of a system.

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The relevant topics include mental workload, decision-making, skilled performance, human-computer interaction, human reliability, work stress and training as these may relate to human-system design. •Organizational Ergonomics Organizational ergonomics is concerned with the optimization of sociotechnical systems, including their organizational structures, policies, and processes so as to id in quality improvement in every aspect of the organization. The relevant topics include communication amongst workers & departments, crew resource management, work design, design of working times, teamwork, participatory design, community ergonomics, cooperative work, new work paradigms, organizational culture, virtual organizations, tele-work, and quality management.?