Insect: Mosquitoes

Chapter I Introduction Background of the Study Mosquitoes nowadays are a problem for us humans. Mosquitoes are attracted by skin odors and the carbon dioxide in our breath. With our climate, it is easy for us Filipinos to get attracted by mosquitoes simply because we are sweating a lot. Because of mosquito bites, we can easily get diseases like West Nile Virus, the West Nile virus is contracted when a mosquito bites a human or animal.

This virus can cause fever, headache, nausea, vomiting and rash in its early stages and can lead to paralysis. Dengue Fever, a contracted type of mosquito bite mainly during the day.Especially dangerous for children, dengue fever is found primarily in the tropics. It resembles viral flu and can be fatal.

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Malaria, also found primarily in tropical regions, mosquitoes carrying malaria bite during the night. Symptoms of this disease include fever, chills, headache, malaise and muscle ache. And Yellow Fever, Mostly found in South America and Africa, yellow fever resembles the symptoms of other diseases carried by mosquitoes. In addition to these flu-like symptoms, yellow fever can also cause backache and jaundice and can be fatal.The menace posted by mosquito bites have surged so much that mosquito control measurements are almost crucial to keep ourselves from contracting serious illnesses like the malaria or the West Nile Virus. Mosquito control is more significant than ever before. Infected mosquitoes are the main culprit behind the spreading of these diseases and avoiding mosquito bites is the only successful way to remain unhurt.

Some Mosquitoes that carry the West Nile virus are often active at dawn and dusk, which makes them less likely to be noticed.Mosquito bites can produce allergic reactions. Itchy red bumps, for instance, are considered allergic reactions to the insect’s saliva. More severe reactions include blisters, hives, bruises and intense inflammatory reactions. Our problem that we need to solve is the mosquitoes, because it carries the Dengue virus, which we Filipinos are aware of.

As of this year, many people have died because of dengue. We want that we can help in our own way is to repel mosquito in our skin so we will not get hurt or get a bite from a mosquito. Statement of the ProblemOur main goal is to create a mosquito repellent that is eco-friendly, yet effective in repelling mosquitoes. Also, compete with the standards of the commercialized repellent. The researchers aim to answer these following questions: 1. Are the organic mosquito repellent sticks better than the commercialized repellents? 2. Is using lemongrass and catnip possible in making effective organic mosquito repellent sticks? 3.

Which is more effective? Basing on the number of mosquitoes repelled and killed. (Catnip stick, lemongrass stick, or both combined. ) HypothesisThe organic mosquito repellent sticks can be a substitute to a commercialized repellent, because it is more eco-friendly and maybe less harmful to the body especially the lungs. The researchers think that it is possible to make organic mosquito repellent sticks using lemongrass and catnip, since those two agents are known to be effective ingredients in making mosquito repellents. The researchers believe that the coil with both agents is much more effective, because the effects of both agents combine is much better than just one of the catnip or lemongrass. Definition of Terms .

Mosquito-repelling incense -Usually shaped into a stick, and typically made from a dried paste of pyrethrum powder. -In the study, this refers to the product that the researchers are trying to create. 2. Lemongrass -A fragrant tropical grass that yields oil that smells lemony. -This refers to the tall grass used in making the repellent sticks.

3. Catnip -A natural mosquito repellent. -One of the main ingredients of our mosquito repellent sticks. 4. Malaria -Caused by a parasite called Plasmodium, which is transmitted via the bites of infected mosquitoes. In this study, this is the disease that is common in poor countries caused by a parasite 5. Dengue Fever -A contracted type of mosquito bite mainly during the day. Especially dangerous for children, is found primarily in the tropics.

-In the study, this is the virus that is widely spreading in the Philippines that we want to prevent. 6. Nepetalactone – It is an organic compound first isolated from the plant catnip. -In the study, it is the main component of catnip that makes mosquitoes be repelled. Significance of the Study The significance of this study aims to help people prevent mosquitoes from staying in homes or schools.The researchers want to help people who get irritated by pesky mosquitoes. The researchers want to help certain people who encounter mosquitoes in their everyday life. 1.

General Public a. The masses in general, since everyone needs to be protected from these insects for they are harmful to the body. 2. Campers b. These people like boy scouts and mountaineers like to stay outdoors, such as forests and mountainous areas, where there are a lot of mosquitoes.

So the researchers want to help them repel mosquitoes on their camps. 3. Parents c.

Parents want to prevent their children from getting bit by mosquitoes making them. Our organic mosquitoes repellent sticks will be a great help to these people 4. The Poor d.

These people can’t afford to buy repellents for their homes. This will aid them, because it is easy to make and really affordable even to the poor. Scope and Limitation Our scope of the study is to make effective mosquito repellent sticks, to prevent mosquitoes from invading homes and other places. To lessen the risk of diseases caused by mosquitoes, such as Dengue Fever and Malaria.As a group we can only limit our organic repellent sticks to only prevent mosquitoes, but not to other insects. The researchers only aim to repel mosquitoes, but not to the extent that we would stop their existence. Chapter II Review of related literature Mosquito Coil Mosquito coil is mosquito-repelling incense, usually shaped into a spiral, and typically made from a dried paste of pyrethrum powder. The coil is usually held at the center of the spiral, suspending it in the air, or wedged by two pieces of fireproof nettings to allow continuous smoldering.

Burning usually begins at the outer end of the spiral and progresses slowly toward the centre of the spiral, producing a mosquito-repellent smoke. A typical mosquito coil can measure around 15 cm in diameter and lasts up to 8 hours. Mosquito coils are widely used in Asia, Africa, and South America.

Bad effects Burning mosquito coil (MC) releases various aromatic compounds like benzo pyrenes, benzo-fluoroethane and particulate matters. These chemicals have the potential to produce harmful effects on airways as demonstrated by histopathological changes in the airways of various animal models.It has been estimated that burning one MC over 8 hours produces particulate matter smoke (as measured as PM2. 5) equivalent to around 100 cigarettes. Particulate matter pollution has been shown to increase airway hyper responsiveness and cause decrements in lung function. Mosquito The mosquitoes are a family of small, midge-like flies: the Culicidae. Although a few species are harmless or even useful to humanity, most are a nuisance because they consume blood from living vertebrates, including humans. The females of many species of mosquitoes are blood eating pests.

In feeding on blood, some of them transmit extremely harmful human and livestock diseases, such as malaria. Some authorities argue accordingly that mosquitoes are the most dangerous animals on Earth. Eggs of some mosquitoes float on the water in rafts. Larvae, often called wigglers, have a soft body, a hard head and a breathing tube, or siphon, at the tip of the abdomen. Pupae are shaped like a comma, and are commonly called tumblers. Adults have delicate legs, a long proboscis and one pair of transparent wings Dengue Dengue fever, also known as break bone fever, is an infectious tropical disease caused by the dengue virus.Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash that is similar to measles. In a small proportion of cases the disease develops into the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever, resulting in bleeding, low levels of blood platelets and blood plasma leakage, or into dengue shock syndrome, where dangerously low blood pressure occurs.

Dengue is transmitted by several species of mosquito within the genus Aedes, principally A. aegypti. The virus has four different types; infection with one type usually gives lifelong immunity to that type, but only short-term immunity to the others.Subsequent infection with a different type increases the risk of severe complications. As there is no commercially available vaccine, prevention is sought by reducing the habitat and the number of mosquitoes and limiting exposure to bites. Treatment of acute dengue is supportive, using either oral or intravenous rehydration for mild or moderate disease, and intravenous fluids and blood transfusion for more severe cases. The incidence of dengue fever has increased dramatically since the 1960s, with around 50–100 million people infected yearly.Early descriptions of the condition date from 1779, and its viral cause and the transmission were elucidated in the early 20th century.

Dengue has become a global problem since the Second World War and is endemic in more than 110 countries. Apart from eliminating the mosquitoes, work is ongoing on a vaccine, as well as medication targeted directly at the virus Catnip Catnip is a perennial herb and member of the Mint family Labiatae. It is native to Europe ; Asia, however has become naturalised in America ; Canada after being introduced.There are approximately 250 species of Catnip.

The active ingredient which causes this is an essential oil called nepetalactone, which can be found in the leaves ; stem of the plant. Other constituents include Acetic Acid, Alpha and beta-nepetalactone, Citral, Nepetalactone, Geraniol, Dipentene, Citronellol, Nerol, Butyric Acid, Valeric Acid and Tannins. Catnip is also known by the following names:   Cataria, Catmint, Catnep, Catrup, Cat’s Heal All, Cat’s-play, Cat’s Wort, Catswort, Catwort, Chi Hsueh Tsao, Field Balm, Garden Nep, Herba Cataria, Herba Catti, Nebada, Nep.Lemongrass Lemongrass herb is a very popular plant found commonly in India and used for medicinal, food and mosquito and insect repellent products.

The lemongrass oils are also used in cosmetics, soaps, perfumes, dyes and odorizes along with thousands of other products. There are many different and related types of lemongrass, all belonging to the grass family, Poaceae. East Indian and West Indian lemon grass are popular names for Cymbopogon flexuous and Cymbopogon citratus. Lemon grass is an evergreen, native to Southeast Asia, India, Myanmar, Thailand, Sri Lanka, and Australia.

Another type of lemongrass also used in insect repellents comes from Malaysia. The thin stems and foliage of lemon grass ranges from blue-green to gold, and the flowers are white, cream, or green. Lemongrass grows to around 8 feet in height in some cases with the majority of species tapering off at 4 feet. Lemon grass grows best in full sun and moist soil and cab be propagated by dividing the root clump into sections. Lemon grass leaves can be dried or frozen but require rehydration before use. Lemon grass is very mild, rating only a one on the hotness scale.It is mostly known as a common staple found in Thai, Vietnamese, Cambodian, Indonesian, and Indian cooking.

Lemon grass is used in curry, stir fry, soups, and marinades and it can be sauteed, mixed with soy sauce and spices, and used as a marinade. Lemongrass is particularly popular with seafood due to its distinctive lemony aroma and flavor. Effectiveness In a 2004 study presented at the California State Science Fair, a 25-percent lemon grass solution was tested against a commercial 15-percent Deet spray.The lemon grass brew was 51 percent effective in repelling mosquitoes, compared to an effectiveness of 81 percent for the Deet product.

The study concluded that lemon grass showed promise as a partial replacement for Deet-based repellents. In a study conducted in 2010 at Maranatha Christian University, researchers compared lemon grass stem extract to citronella oil. Citronella oil proved more effective at repelling mosquitoes than the highest concentration of the lemon grass extract. Both studies reveal that while lemon grass does repel mosquitoes, it does not work as well as other products.Nepetalactone Nepetalactone is a terpene composed of two isoprene units, with a total of ten carbons. Its chemical structure is similar to that of the valepotriates derived from the herb valerian, which is a mild central nervous system sedative (or stimulant to some persons). The molecular formula for nepetalactone is C10H14O2. The first fully characterized methylcyclopentane monoterpenoid.

Isolated from the volatile oil of catnip produced by Nepeta cataria Nepetalactone , its cas register number is 21651-62-7.It also can be called Nepetalactone cis-trans-form ; Cyclopenta(c)pyran-1(4aH)-one, 5,6,7,7a-tetrahydro-4,7-dimethyl-, (4aS,7S,7aR)- ; Cyclopenta(c)pyran-1(4aH)-one, 5,6,7,7a-tetrahydro-4,7-dimethyl-, (4aS-(4aalpha,7alpha,7aalpha))- . It  is an organic compound first isolated from the plant catnip. Chapter III METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the project’s research design, list of materials and their quantities needed for the research, and the laboratory procedures which are the pre-lab procedure, laboratory proper, and post laboratory. Research Design This study made use of an experimental research design.

The experimental and control groups were used in this study. This design is illustrated as follows. Table 3. 1 Set-up| Location| Product Used| Quantity of Mosquitoes| Set-up A| Enclosed room| Catnip Incense Stick| 10 mosquitoes| Set-up B| Enclosed room| Lemongrass Incense Stick| 10 mosquitoes| Set-up C| Enclosed room| Catnip and Lemongrass Incense Stick| 10 mosquitoes| Set-up D| Enclosed room| CommercializedIncense Stick| 10 mosquitoes| Subject of the Study -The researchers used mosquitoes as the subject to the experiment. Ten mosquitoes in each container, with a total of forty mosquitoes (Caught with the mosquito trap).Materials Needed: One (1) – Masher Four (4) – Mosquito traps Three (3) – Incense holders Ten (10) – Incense sticks Two (2) – Catnip Two (2) – Lemon Grass Four (4) – Containers of Mosquitoes One (1) – Commercialized repellent Pre-Lab Procedures: Catnip and Lemon Grass were collected by the researchers. The researchers pulverize the Catnip and Lemon Grass to extract the juices from them. The researchers then put the extracted juices into 3 containers.

First with only the catnip, Second with only the lemon grass, lastly with both catnip and lemon grass in the container. Laboratory Proper Procedures:The researchers applied the juices of catnip to three incense sticks and was labeled Set-up A, lemongrass extract juice to the other three incense sticks and labeled Set-up B, and both the lemon grass extract and catnip extract juices to the remaining incense sticks and labeled Set-up C. The commercialized repellent was labeled Set-up D. The researchers applied the extract juices thoroughly by hand or by cotton swabs.

The researchers then let the incense sticks rest for about 6 to 10 minutes, to let the extract juices be absorbed by the incense sticks. Post Laboratory Procedures:The researchers put the incense sticks in their respective incense holders in order. The researchers then put sample #1 in an enclosed room beside the mosquito trap. The researchers then lit up the incense sticks and released the first batch of mosquitoes. The researchers closely observe the experiment. The researchers then waited for the incense sticks to disintegrate (15 to 20 minutes). Then the researchers do the same with the sample #2, sample #3, and to the commercialized repellent.

The researchers recorded the results based on how many mosquitoes were repelled and killed.Chapter IV Presentation, Interpretation and Analysis of Data This chapter shows the presentation, interpretation and analysis of data gathered after a thorough investigation. Table 4.

1 Mosquitoes that were effectively repelled Experimental| Quantity(number of sticks)| Mosquitoes Repelled| Time Element (minutes)| Catnip| 3| 4 out of 10| 20| Lemongrass| 3| 3 out of 10| 20| Both Combined| 3| 5 out of 10| 20| The table above shows that the Incense stick with the Catnip effectively repelled 4 mosquitoes and the Incense stick with the Lemongrass only killed 3 out of 10 mosquitoes.On the other hand, the Incense stick with the Catnip and the Lemongrass combined showed the best results in this test. This shows that the Catnip and Lemongrass combined will yield better results than the Catnip and Lemon grass alone but the results of this test were unsatisfactory because only half of the mosquitoes tested were repelled effectively. Table 4. 2 Mosquitoes that were effectively killed Experimental| Quantity(number of sticks)| Mosquitoes Repelled| Time Element (minutes)| Catnip| 3| 1 out of 9| 20| Lemon Grass| 3| 1 out of 9| 20|Both Combined| 3| 3 out of 9| 20| The table shows that Catnip and Lemongrass killed only 1 out of 9 mosquitoes but when combined the product repels 3 out of 9 mosquitoes, this proves that the organic incense stick will yield better results if both Catnip and Lemongrass combined, rather than the Catnip and Lemongrass alone because it only kills 1 out of 9 mosquitoes as shown on the table. Table 4.

3 Mosquitoes that are killed by the commercialized product Experimental| Quantity(number of coils)| Mosquitoes Repelled| Time Element (minutes)| Baygon| 1| 9 out of 10| 20|This table shows that the Baygon coil effectively killed 9 out of 10 mosquitoes. This proves that our incense stick with Lemongrass, Catnip or both can’t compete with a better, well known commercialized product like that of the Baygon. Baygon uses stronger chemicals unlike that of our incense stick, which uses organic plants. Chapter 5 Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendations Summary: The researchers made a mosquito coil that is organic and eco-friendly. The researchers also studied between a commercialized mosquito coil with their own mosquito repellent.The researchers also made mosquito traps for trapping mosquitoes for the researchers experiment.

Their product is effective and it produced some positive results. The catnip and lemongrass combined shows the best results, based on how much mosquitoes it repelled and killed, throughout the experiment. Conclusions: Throughout the experiment, the researchers found out that the commercialized mosquito coil is more effective than our organic mosquito repellent. The researchers found out that it is possible to make a mosquito coil using catnip and lemongrass because the two agents are an effective mosquito repellent.Out of the three mosquito coils we had made, the catnip and lemongrass combined showed the best results basing on our experiment. Recommendations: The researchers recommend the people to use natural and safe mosquito coils that can be home made. The researchers also recommend using stronger plants to use in making mosquito coil. The researchers also recommend adding scented aroma to the coils/sticks so it can be a pleasing feeling for the people who will use it.

The researchers also recommend using both Catnip and Lemon Grass for making a mosquito coil because it is effective.References: From Internet: Brian, Dan. How to Make Mosquito Coils. 1999. 2013.

;http://www. ehow. com/how_12031090_make-mosquito-coils. html; NewTechBio, Inc. Lemongrass as an insect repellent. 2007.

March 2013. ;http://www. newtechbio. com/articles/Lemongrass-as-an-insect-repellent. htm; Kim, Scott. Nepetalactone Chemistry. 1996. January 2012.

;http://chemistry. about. com/od/factsstructures/ig/Chemical-Structures—N/Nepetalactone.

htm > Ombrello, T. (2011). Catnip. Retrieved from <http://faculty. ucc. edu/biology-ombrello/pow/catnip. htm> Wilson, Julia.

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com. au/all-about-catnip; American Chemical Society (2001, August 28). Catnip Repels Mosquitoes More Effectively Than DEET. ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 14, 2013, from ;http://www. sciencedaily.

com­14; Mosquito coil. (2013, February 26). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 15:12, March 14, 2013, from ;http://en.

wikipedia. org/w/index. php? title=Mosquito_coil;oldid=540610115; Dengue fever.

(2013, March 8). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.Retrieved 15:13, March 14, 2013, from ;http://en. wikipedia.

org/w/index. php? title=Dengue_fever;oldid=542736735; Mosquito. (2013, March 14). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 15:14, March 14, 2013, from ;http://en. wikipedia. org/w/index.

php? title=Mosquito;oldid =544115233; jasonf808. (Dec 11, 2008). Mosquito Trap. Retrieved March 14, 2013 from ;http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=guNOeAqVG6Q; Eartheasy.

(Apr. 28, 2011). 5 easy to grow mosquito-repelling plants. Retrieved from ;http://eartheasy.

com/blog/2011/04/5-easy-to-grow-mosquito-repelling-plants/;Knight, J. (2012). Alderleaf wilderness college: Nature ; wilderness survival school . Retrieved from ;http://www.

wildernesscollege. com/plants-that-repel-mosquitoes. html; Appendices: The mosquito trap that was placed in a corner. The mosquito trap that was put beside the drawer. The mosquito trap that was placed behind the door Materials used in making the lemongrass Extracted juice from lemongrass. incense. Chopped lemongrass for the extraction. Lemongrass coated incense sticks.

Dried up product. Setting up the experiment. Lighting up of the incense.