Part 1 of 1 – 92. 0/ 100. 0 Points Question 1 of 25 4. 0/ 4. 0 Points Which one of the following is not a system? A. a leaf B. a tree C. a mountain range D. Earth Correct E. All of these are examples of systems Answer Key: E Feedback: See “The system concept” in Chapter 1. All of the above examples are described as systems. “A system may be large or small, simple or complex (Figure 1. 6). It could be the contents of the beaker in a laboratory experiment or the contents of an ocean.
A leaf is a system, but it is also part of a larger system (a tree), which is part of a still larger system (a forest). “This figure shows a variety of systems. The entire diagram – mountains, river, lake – is one kind of system known as a watershed. The individual pieces enclosed by boxes, such as the river, are also systems. Even a small volume of water or lake sediment (foreground boxes) can be considered a system. ” Figure 1. 6, p. 9 “The Earth itself is a very close approximation to a closed system. ” Question 2 of 25 4. 0/ 4. 0 Points
In the illustration below, which of the three models depicts an “open system? A. Model A B. Model B Correct C. Model C D. Models A and B E. None of the above Answer Key: C Feedback: “A closed system is one that does not allow matter to pass through its boundaries (but may allow energy). An open system allows both matter and energy to pass through its boundaries. ” Question 3 of 25 4. 0/ 4. 0 Points The figure below depicts the evolution of the solar system. During which stage would the process of nuclear fusion begin? A. Stage 1 B. Stage 2 Correct C. Stage 3 D.
Stage 4 E. Choices 3 and 4 Answer Key: C Feedback: “3. Contraction raises temperature; process of nuclear fusion begins in central bulge – Sun begins to shine. Outer disk cools – now contains wide swath of rock debris. Larger chunks of debris begin to attract smaller chunks by gravity, thereby growing larger (accretion). ” Question 4 of 25 4. 0/ 4. 0 Points The cloud of gas and dust from which the moons and planets of our solar system eventually formed is called a _____. Correct A. nebula. B. condensation cloud. C. nuclear cloud. D. accretionary nebula. Answer Key: A
Feedback: “The nebular hypothesis, originally formulated by the German philosopher Immanuel Kant in 1755 and now widely accepted as the best description of planetary formulation, hypothesizes that the solar system coalesced out of a swirly cloud of interstellar dust and gas called a nebula. ” “Cloud of matter (nebula) begins to contract gravitationally. Process may have been initiated or accelerated by shock waves from supernova explosion (not shown). ” Question 5 of 25 4. 0/ 4. 0 Points Our Sun was born ______ years ago. A. 456 million B. 4. 56 million Correct C. 4. 56 billion
D. 45. 6 billion E. None of the above Answer Key: C Feedback: Explained in “The Origin of the Solar System”. Question 6 of 25 4. 0/ 4. 0 Points Differentiation of the inner planets probably means that each of the rocky planetary bodies _____. A. started out with a cold exterior that was heated by the sun. B. lost temperature early in its history. C. went through a period with thick atmospheres. Correct D. started out hot enough to melt, either partially or completely. E. Choices 1 and 2 Answer Key: D Feedback: Why is the accretion history of planets important to geologists?
Because of the heat generated by collisions, every rocky planet probably started out hot enough to melt either partially or completely. During the period of partial melting, terrestrial planets separated into layers of differing chemical composition, a process called differentiation. Question 7 of 25 4. 0/ 4. 0 Points Which of the inner planets has an atmosphere too thin to retain much heat and has an average surface temperature of -63° Celsius? A. Mercury B. Venus C. Earth Correct D. Mars E. None of the above Answer Key: D Feedback: See Table 1. 1 on page 22. Question 8 of 25 4. 0/ 4. Points The Principle of Uniformitarianism tells us that _____. A. Earth is extremely old B. Earth systems don’t change much over geologic time C. the present is the key to the past Correct D. all of the above are true E. Choices A and B Answer Key: D Feedback: pp. 24-25 Question 9 of 25 4. 0/ 4. 0 Points Over Earth history, though the processes that occur on Earth have not changed, the _____. A. rates of the different cycles such as the rock cycle and plate tectonics have differed over time. B. temperature and composition of the atmosphere has been dramatically different in the past.
C. level of the oceans has fluctuated. D. location of the continents has varied over time. Correct E. All of the above are true. Answer Key: E Feedback: “When we extrapolate these imperceptibly slow motions over millions of years, we discover a stunning result, which is supported by many decades of scientific observation: Earth’s continents were in very different positions in the past. This leads us to a more sophisticated understanding of Hutton’s principle. The physical processes that occur on Earth have not changed over time, but the physical conditions have changed dramatically.
Sea levels drop and rise; the chemical composition of Earth’s atmosphere fluctuates, albeit ever so slowly. The cycles maintain a balance, but in doing so the sizes of the reservoirs of the Earth system may change and the speed of cycles and processes may increase or decrease. This is an especially important lesson today, when it appears our planet has entered a period of human mediated climatic change. ” Question 10 of 25 4. 0/ 4. 0 Points The study of geology is important to human society because _____. A. Earth materials and processes affect our lives through our dependence on Earth resources B. f a need to understand geologic hazards such as volcanic eruptions, floods and earthquakes C. it is important to understand the physical properties of the natural environment Correct D. All of the above are important reasons to study geology E. Choices 2 and 3 Answer Key: D Feedback: “We need to understand Earth materials because we depend on them for all of our material resources-the minerals, rocks, and metals with which we construct our built environment; the energy with which we run it; the soil that supports agriculture and other plant life; and the air and water that sustain life itself. “Some Earth processes are hazardous-that is, damaging to human interests. These geological hazards include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, hurricanes, floods, and even meteorite impacts. The more we know about these hazardous processes, the more successful we will be in protecting ourselves from future natural disasters. ” Question 11 of 25 4. 0/ 4. 0 Points In the illustration below, the part of the atom that has a negative charge is referred to as the A. first electron energy level. B. second electron energy level. Correct C. electron.
D. proton. E. none of the above. Answer Key: C Feedback: See Figure 2. 1 on page 36. Question 12 of 25 4. 0/ 4. 0 Points The mass number of an atom is Correct A. the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. B. the number of protons in the nucleus. C. the number of neutrons in the nucleus. D. the number of electron energy levels. E. the number of electrons in the outermost energy level. Answer Key: A Feedback: “The number of protons plus the number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom is the mass number. ” Question 13 of 25 4. 0/ 4. 0 Points
What type of weak bond results from asymmetry in charge distribution? A. covalent bond B. metallic bond C. ionic bond Correct D. Van der Waals bond E. none of the above. Answer Key: D Feedback: “Van de Waals bonding: A weak attraction can occur between electrically neutral molecules that have an asymmetrical charge distribution. The positive end of one molecule is attracted to the negative end of another molecule. For example, the carbon atoms in graphite form sheets in which each carbon atom has strong covalent bonds with three neighbors. The bonds between sheets are weak.
This is why graphite feels slippery when you rub it between your fingers. ” Figure 2. 3, page 39 Question 14 of 25 4. 0/ 4. 0 Points Why is steel not considered a mineral? A. it is organic Correct B. it is man made C. it doesn’t have a crystalline structure D. All of the above E. None of the above Answer Key: B Feedback: A mineral is a naturally formed, solid, inorganic, substance with a characteristic crystal structure and a specific chemical composition. Steel fails the first of the four tests for a mineral because it is man-made, not naturally formed. Question 15 of 25 0. 0/ 4. 0 Points
The natural samples of corundum pictured below show variations of color from red (ruby) to blue (sapphire). The differences in color is best explained by A. polymerization Incorrect B. crystal structure C. the principle of atomic substituion D. polymorphism E. Choices 3 and 4 Answer Key: C Feedback: “A mineral’s color is determined by several factors, but the main determinant is chemical composition. ” The color of a mineral, though often striking, is not a reliable means of identification. A mineral’s color is determined by several factors, but the main determinant is chemical composition.
Some elements can create strong color effects, even when they are present only as trace impurities. For example, the mineral corundum is commonly white or grayish, but when small amounts of chromium are present as a result of atomic substitution of Cr3+ for Al3+, corundum is blood red and is given the name ruby. Similarly, when small amounts of iron and titanium are present, the corundum is deep blue, producing another gem, sapphire. Question 16 of 25 4. 0/ 4. 0 Points What element bonds with a silicon atom to form the “silicate” tetrahedron? A. chloride B. hydrogen C. oxygen and hydrogen D. arbon Correct E. none of the above Answer Key: E Feedback: Figure 2. 12 (there are no hydrogen atoms, only Si and oxygen); “Two silica tetrahedral can bond by sharing an oxygen atom. This process can be repeated over and over, with the silica anions assembling themselves into large, complex, linked structures called polymers. ” Question 17 of 25 0. 0/ 4. 0 Points Which silicate structure results in a hard, tough mineral that is resistant to wear? A. single tetrahedron B. hexagonal ring Incorrect C. sheet D. framework E. single chain Answer Key: D Feedback: figure 2. 14 Question 18 of 25 4. / 4. 0 Points Which rock sample is formed from cooling and solidifying magma? Correct A. Sample A. B. Sample B. C. Sample C. D. None of the above answers are correct. E. Choices 1 and 2 Answer Key: A Feedback: Igneous rocks form by the cooling and solidification of magma. See also 2. 16 on page 57 for figure that matches the figure associated with this question. Question 19 of 25 4. 0/ 4. 0 Points The branch of geology that deals with understanding the processes which operate at or beneath the surface of Earth and the materials on which those processes act is called Correctphysical geology.
Answer Key: physical Feedback: “Physical geology is concerned with understanding the processes that operate at or beneath the surface of Earth and the materials on which those processes operate. ” p. 4 Question 20 of 25 4. 0/ 4. 0 Points The principle of Correctuniformitarianism tells us that the present is the key to the past. Answer Key: uniformit* Feedback: Uniformitarianism: The concept processes governing the Earth system today have operated in a similar manner through geologic time. The Principle of Uniformitarianism was developed by James Hutton. Question 21 of 25 4. / 4. 0 Points The smallest particle that retains all of the chemical properties of an element is called a(n) Correctatom ? Answer Key: atom Feedback: “atom: The smallest individual particle that retains the distinctive chemical properties of an element. ” Question 22 of 25 4. 0/ 4. 0 Points The smallest chemical unit that has all the properties of a particular compound is called a(n) Correctmolecule ? Answer Key: molecule Feedback: “molecule: The smallest chemical unit that has all the properties of a particular compound. ” Question 23 of 25 4. 0/ 4. 0 Points
The property of a mineral that relates how heavy it is for its size is referred to as Correctdensity ? Answer Key: density Feedback: “Another important physical property of a mineral is how light or heavy it feels. Two equal-sized baskets have different weights when one is filled with feathers and the other with rocks, because the rocks have greater density than the feathers. Minerals that have a high density, such as gold, have closely packed atoms. Minerals with a low density, such as ice, have less closely packed atoms. ” Question 24 of 25 4. 0/ 4. 0 Points
The most common mineral family is called the Correctsilicate minerals. Answer Key: silicat* Feedback: “Not only are silicates the most common minerals and the main rock-formers, they also have an unusual diversity of atomic structures. ” p. 52 Question 25 of 25 4. 0/ 4. 0 Points The principle of Correctatomic substitution is an exception to the rule that minerals have a specific chemical formula. Answer Key: atomic Feedback: “A complication to the rule that a mineral must have a specific chemical composition arises from a phenomenon called atomic substitution. ” p. 42