INTERNATIONAL-RELATIONS ARTICLE ASSIGNMENT=1 SOUTH ASIA AND MANAGEMENT OF ENERGY SECURITY 3/27/2013 SUBMITTED BY FAIZAN-ALI BBA-7C * Introduction: The article named south Asia and management of energy security has been written by a well known associate professor of international relations miss DR MUSARRAT JABEEN Quetta university Baluchistan.The writer herself a very competent and well known to her subject of specialization with the great exposure of international systems and relations also read one other books of her by the name of legacy of china which is one of her successful stories and proof of her good thought of school. After now introducing the writer I would like to introduce the under attention article of the writer which is south Asia and management of energy security. Summary (major points): in the article the writer talked about many things and tried to focus on the fact that energy security hinges on the demand and supply systems in terms of energy management. She used a word of hinge in her sentence which is the demonstration of a beautiful making of preposition by writer which means a joining device on which a lid or door turns when it opens.
When comes to the major and focal points of an article I would like to firstly translate the meaning of energy security which means that smooth and reliable transaction and movement of energy between supply and demand systems of energy.The emergence of supply and demand is from the economic world and as per my understanding with these terms I conclude that there should not be a supply and demand gap in the systems of energy otherwise I will create a question on the security of energy which is the smooth transaction of energy. Importantly major points for supply and demand are rolled under three dimensions: * Dependency * Certainty * AffordabilityAs energy is the most important security for all the nations and states because a great sense of competition exists among nations for energy security as energy is one of the basic requirements for economic development and economic growth. There are some important factors in the given articles which are responsible for the increase in demand * High rate of population * Stress caused by economic growth * Economic dualism * Structural transformation * Physical capital formationThis study basically focuses on the supply and demand systems crossing south Asia at the confluence of central Asia and Middle East south Asia has specific energy security issues. One of the growing demands of energy is that china is becoming the world’s biggest economic power very soon in future due to china needs the cost is kept on increasing specially in south Asia.
The region specially discussed in this article is south Asia in which Pakistan is included which would be the route and supplier of energy very soon in future but this might not take place very soon because of our energy crisis at national level.India which is only the supplier and Afghanistan which is the route of energy can also create political barriers to other states of south Asia especially for Iran who is the biggest supplier of energy among south Asia countries. U.
s Europe and china’s interest has made some political environment in south Asia. As oil is one of the most important ingredients of energy so U. S who is the only power of world wants to control all pricing management of oil especially in Gulf States?In view of geographical location PAKSITAN has a great importance for all because we have gawaddar port we have Karachi port and we have so many other routes which actually links with the boundaries of AGHANISTAN INDIA IRAN and across the river to the Gulf States. The writer has taken up some important qualifications about PAKSITAN which in my point of view are very important. * Pakistan is located at the confluence of central middle and south Asia. In short Pakistan is the heart of Asia.
* Pakistan has the ability to grow at the level of above 8% GDP. * Pakistan has catered for the central Asia trade with south Asia and the rest of world. Challenges: In South Asia, the demand for infrastructure, and particularly electricity, is growing rapidly. Improved electricity supply is a key to sustaining economic growth and improving social services.
• Electricity is still not available to about half of the region’s 1. 5 billion population, especially in rural areas, which adversely affects the efforts to reduce poverty and create better opportunities for all. • The lack of access to modern forms of energy prolongs the widespread traditional use of biomass, with adverse environmental and health impact. Electricity services to the connected customers, whether to businesses or households, are often unreliable and of poor quality, coupled with high technical and commercial losses and poor commercial performance of service providers. • Advancing electricity sector reforms, aimed at improving the efficiency and quality of electricity service, commercial viability of electricity industry, institutional and governance arrangements, accountability of service providers, and investment climate is critical to ensure sustained growth of the sector and optimal development and use of energy resources. National energy systems are autarchic, with weak or nonexistent interconnections.
There is little cross-border trade in electricity, with the exception of India-Bhutan trade, and none in natural gas. * Critical analysis: South Asia’s energy security dilemma is one of the signal challenges of the 21st century, critical to the economic future of almost two billion people and the political future of one of the world s most volatile regions. Now for the critical analysis as per my reading and understanding with the article I would like to mention some strengths and weaknesses and also the things which are covered and which are not covered.
In south Asia energy management china India Pakistan Afghanistan are the majors countries for supply and routes specially in south Asia so they have a great interest of international community specially from the super power U. S. America wanted a full control on all movements and managements of energy specially on oil and also the resources of all these big countries of Asia. china is more powerful among all other Asian states because they are using there resources very efficiently and effectively.Here I can give an example of small dams of water as reserves in china which are 1 lakh in quantity as per rough idea which is the security of many other energy production systems. While talking about Pakistan, Baluchistan which is the biggest area in view of resources and energy generation is now under the strong influence by international forces to get management by others.
In view of strengths it is an accepted fact a stronger Pakistan will deal strongly with the regional challenges. The construction of deep sea port at GAWADAR is just one component of the greater gawadar plan. here is a strong link of network of Karachi with Baluchistan by roads. Management of regional interest can play an important role in the management of energy in south Asia. As Pakistan is the hub of transportation for all so there should be a unity and strong faith of friendship among the countries of south Asia. The policy of recasting regional interstate relations on the basis of trade will directly lead to the prosperity of the whole region.
Regionally there are so many projects are running among the Pakistan Iran India china srilanka etc. ne of the greatest example is the agreement of gas pipeline between Pakistan and Iran which is the proof of interstate relationships. This agreement is unacceptable for the international actors like America. when going internationally we should all act alike under some laws and policies for the benefit of whole Asia because it has to be understand by all that our continent is very rich in many things like geographical location resources natural climate fertile land etc.
everybody should look east towards each other because to the west only fake faces and promises are made for their own national interest. Conclusion: finally at the end I would like to say that this is our bad luck among south Asia countries that we all are affiliated with other international channels for some interest and we are less behind in developing relations among each other. Due to which when there is an increase in the security of energy happens in any country the other feels insecurity like when India made nuclear tests it was a worried time for Pakistan because instead of having a relationship of friendship we are enemy of each other which is the biggest drawback in our continent. he task of global reforms has to be an inclusive one,addresing the concerns and needs of the states located in the heartland of Asia. All the tensions should be solved by dialogues and by cooperation’s. There should be two management policies one at regional level and one should be on international level. The gap is increasing between supply and demand of energy because of inelasticity.
East and Southeast Asian states are facing severe and increasing energy security challenges.Regional economies are generally poor in natural resources, trade-dependent, and energy-intensive in character. Regional energy demands, especially for natural gas and fuels derived from crude oil, continue to escalate.
Simultaneously, indigenous production of oil and gas has been for the large part either declining. This divergence between energy demands and domestic supplies has led to increasing reliance among East and Southeast Asian states on foreign sources of supply, including energy imports that are predominantly delivered by sea.Recommendation: * Create awareness programs for states on their issues, like economic, social and legal issues, to strengthen them, on government level and civil society organization. * Need comprehensive legislation to ensure the states’ right and their protection. * Promote/Start debates and address the issues of states with governments.