Chapter 33/36 Vocabulary 1. Franklin D. Roosevelt: only president to have been elected 4 times; 32nd; Democratic candidate who won the 1932 election by a landslide. He refused to uphold any of Hoover’s policies with the intent on enacting his own.
He pledged a present a “New Deal” (its specific meaning ambiguous at the time to the American people) to the American public. 2. Eleanor Roosevelt: FDR’s Wife and New Deal supporter. Was a great supporter of civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws. She also worked for birth control and better conditions for working women 3.Harry Hopkins: New York social worker and friend of FDR, appointed to run the F ERA. 4. Father Coughlin: the Catholic priests in Michigan who began radio broadcasts in 1930.
His slogan was “Social Justice”. He was anti-about sexuality gender roles, and became anti-Jewish and fascistic. 5. Huey Long: Sen. Huey P Long of Louisiana was an agitator who used the popular discontent to make unreasonable promises.
He promised every family $5000 which won him supporters, even though he had absolutely no way of making good on that promise. 6. Francis Townsend: a retired physician who had lost his savings.He attracted the support of 5 million senior citizens, promising each person over the age of 60 $200 a month. This was ridiculous but the destitute people wanted to believe.
7. New Deal: The economic and political policies of FDR’s administration in the 1930’s which aimed to solve the problems of the Great Depression by providing relief for the unemployed and launched efforts to the progressive era to expand greatly an American styled welfare state 8. Brain Trust: Group of expert policy advisers who worked with FDR in the 1930s to end the great depression 9.Hundred Days: period of the 1st 100 days of Franklin Roosevelt’s administration 1933, when many New Deal programs were passed by Democratic Congress that were mostly sought to deal with emergency 10. The three R’s: Relief Programs (Civilian Conservation Corps and Federal Emergency Act), Recovery Programs (National Recovery Administration, Works Progress Administration, and Agricultural Adjustment Act), and Reform Programs (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Social Security Administration, and Tennessee Valley Authority) 11.Glass-Steagull Act: established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and included banking reforms, some of which were designed to control speculation 12. Civilian Conservation Corps: provided employment for about 3 million men in government camps.
Their work included reforestation, fire fighting, swamp drainage, building levees for flood control, and improving national parks. This program gave jobs to men but it also benefited the public. 13. Works Progress Administration: New Deal program that employed men and women to build hospitals, schools, parks, and airports; employed artists, writers, and musicians as well.Taxpayers criticized the agency for paying people to due “useless” jobs such as painting murals.
14. National Recovery Act: 1933. First attempt to achieve economic advance through planning and cooperation among labor, business and government. Codes and regs. to control production, labor relations, and trade among businesses. Declared unconstitutional in 1935. Recovery and also Reform.
Individual industries, through “fair competition” codes, were forced to lower their work hours so that more people could be hired; a minimum wage was also established 15.Schechter case: 1935; Shut down the NRA — Congress could not “delegate legislate powers” to the executive, and “Congressional control could not apply to a local fowl business. 16. Public Works Administration: industrial recovery and for unemployment relief.
–its goal was to stimulate the economy through the building of huge public works projects that needed large numbers of workers. It set up jobs for people without jobs which gave the employers money and the employers funded the job. 17. Agricultural Adjustment Act: Created in 1933 as part of FDR’s New Deal.The AAA controlled the production and prices of crops by offering subsidies to farmers who stayed under set quotas.
The Supreme Court declared the AAA unconstitutional in 1936. 18. Dust Bowl: 1933 – prolonged drought struck the states of the trans-Mississippi Great Plains. Partially caused by the cultivation of countless acres, dry-farming techniques, and mechanization. 19. Securities and Exchange Commission: 1934 – Created to supervise stock exchanges and to punish fraud in securities trading. 20. Tennessee Valley Authority: June 1933.
Innovative attempt at regional planning.Series of dams in seven states on the Tennessee river to control floods, ease navigation, and produce electricity. Endures to this day.
Relief and Reform…
The large project of constructing dams on the Tennessee River brought to the area full employment, the blessings of cheap electric power, low-cost housing, abundant cheap nitrates, the restoration of eroded soil, reforestation, improved navigation, and flood control. 21. Social Security Act: provided for federal-state unemployment insurance. To provide security for old age, specified categories of retired workers were to receive regular payments from Washington.
– old-age pensions. Was an idea taken from Europe. 22. Wagner Act: Made to counter the Supreme Court striking down the NRA — This law created a powerful National Labor Relations Board for administrative purposes and reasserted the rights of labor to engage in self-organization and to bargain collectively through representatives of its own choice.
23. National Labour Relations Board: Defined unfair labor practices and established the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) to settle disputes between employers and employees. 4. 20th and 21st amendments: Presidential term starts January 20th and repeals prohibition 25. Court-packing scheme: Attempt by Roosevelt to appoint one new Supreme Court justice for every sitting justice over the age of 70 who had been there for at least 10 years. Wanted to prevent justices from dismantling the new deal.
Plan died in congress and made opponents of New Deal inflamed. Many saw that FDR was trying to disrupt checks and balances and become a dictator.