Are the trends in Heritage tourism having an effect on world Heritage sites? | | Abstract Using in depth secondary research this paper aims to examine the impacts of heritage tourism to various heritage sites in terms of potential threats and opportunities associated with tourism development and growth. In addition there will be an analysing of the research methodologies used in order to identify theoretical framework surrounding area of study to clarify the outcomes of results.
With effective management and planning heritage tourism can contribute to the local economy as well as the preservation and restoration of the historical monuments at the same time connecting the local culture, which represents a significant period of human history, with global cultures. Although benefits of this type of tourism do exist there are various issues apparent at numerous historical sites. This study focuses on the concept of sustainability in terms of understanding the implications of tourism to built heritage and its surroundings. nd the local culture, as well as to the development of the communities if planning and management is that dwell therein in terms of planning and management in order to restore, preserve historical monuments at the same time understand Abstract Using in depth secondary research this paper aims to examine the impacts of heritage tourism to various heritage sites in terms of potential threats and opportunities associated with tourism development and growth. In addition there will be an analysing of the research methodologies used in order to identify theoretical framework surrounding area of study to clarify the outcomes of results.
With effective management and planning heritage tourism can contribute to the local economy as well as the preservation and restoration of the historical monuments at the same time connecting the local culture, which represents a significant period of human history, with global cultures. Although benefits of this type of tourism do exist there are various issues apparent at numerous historical sites. This study focuses on the concept of sustainability in terms of understanding the implications of tourism to built heritage and its surroundings. nd the local culture, as well as to the development of the communities if planning and management is that dwell therein in terms of planning and management in order to restore, preserve historical monuments at the same time understand | | | Introduction A catalyst for poverty alleviation, tourism is considered to be one of the world’s largest industries, as it acts as a key driver for development through foreign exchange earnings and the formation of direct and indirect employment WTO (2012, a).
Tourism contributes 5% of the world’s GDP and accounts for 6% of the world’s exports in services, making it the fourth largest export sector after fuels, chemicals and automotive products. Tourism is accountable for 235 million jobs or one in every 12 jobs globally (WTO 2012, a). With a record of 705 million tourists up to August 2012, global tourism is to rise to 1billion by the end of 2012(WTO, 2012, b). In 2007, cultural tourism accounted for 40% of all international tourism (Mintel, 2010).
These results produced are highly adequate as they directly came from WTO whom monitors the trends of tourism and provide an up to date statistic analysis in a timely mode in order understand the affects and impacts of tourism on a global level. The results from Mintel can be considered reliable as information was influenced by organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) tourism committee whom activity aims at promoting the culture of evaluation in tourism.
As the growth in tourism can help sustain cultural heritage sites, but has severe consequences, since immense growth can affect the configuration of cultural sites and monuments as they are becoming heavily congested by tourist. Discussions and analysis of key theories and interpretation of research methods Heritage mainly represents the past and the future, its meaning is associated with the word in heritance which basically explains when something is passed from one generation to the next generation. Heritage acts as a carrier of historical values from the past, which can be viewed as part of the cultural tradition.
Therefore the linkage between heritage and tourism exist by reconstructing the past in the present through interpretation i. e. cultural brokers (Nuryanti,1996). Heritage tourism is a form of special interest tourism (Nuryanti,1996). Heritage can be a form of living or built elements of culture which has intangible or tangible features such as buildings, locations, cuisines and arts and crafts (Timothy and Nyaupane, 2009). The academic adapted these view by exploring various tourism related journals. This may be reliable as they are peer viewed by other academics and experts round the area of study.
This type of research method can help when trying to understand a specific study area before it can progress to any other research methods. However journals may not be able to answer a specific question that needs to be investigated as it has been created around the academics particular area of study, answering questions that the academics are particularly researching or investigating around. According to Zepal and Hall (1991) heritage tourism motivations are based on ‘’nostalgia for the past and the desire to experience diverse cultural landscapes and forms”.
This quote may not be factual but rather the author’s perspectives as the postmodern tourist may have influence by other motives. The motives to visit cultural historical sites were influenced by having a curiosity in history, visiting cultural attractions/events and visiting a historical attractions/events (Kolar and zabkar,2010 cited in Swarbrooke,1999). Cultural motivations can give an idea of what precedes authentic experiences (Kolar and zabkar,2010). This information was obtained by the means of conducting a survey on 25 Romanesque heritage sites in four European countries.
The results identified that cultural motivation is significant subsequent of both object-based and existential authenticity, which in turn influences tourist perceptions. Although surveys can be gathered quickly and administered easily, response rates can be bias as the results of a survey are randomly sampled, normally used to target a selective of participants. Furthermore the results were only generalizing on specific heritage settings. This makes it difficult to identify if tourists have similar experiences and perceptions in other heritage settings.
An idea of the motivations and behaviours of heritage tourists are, essential if the impacts on heritage sites are to be managed sustainably (Kolar and zabkar, 2010). Heritage tourism can create employment, alleviate poverty, curb rural flight migration, and increase community empowerment. The dynamic characteristics of tourism can contribute to preserving and enhancing intangible and tangible cultural heritage. However Intangible and tangible cultural assets whether it is built or a living must be analyzed and managed well in order to flourish in an increasingly globalized world.
However this relies on stake holder’s involvement such as the partnerships between communities and the tourism and heritage industries. This is because the genuine appreciation for the aspirations and values of all parties can influence the survival of heritage tourism (UNWTO, 2012). This information can be considered as accurate as UNWTO monitor cultural tourism activities and are able to understand the implications of tourism through observations of tourist flows and tourism developments in various heritage sites, in addition working with various stake holders and tourism departments.
UNESCO adopted the convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage sites in 1972(Garrod and Fyall, 2009). Since then there has been 936 designated world heritage sites located in 159 states party. The aim of the convention is to “ensure the identification, protection, conservation, presentation and transmission to future generations of cultural and natural heritage of outstanding universal value” (Garrod and Fyall, 2009 cited in UNESCO, 2008:2).
The information produce can be considered accurate as it was obtained from UNESCO published documents which is based on factual information rather than ones opinion. However it has been debated that the world Heritage listings has had an influenced in the increase in visitor numbers to world heritage sites. Considerable growth in tourist interest has been distinguished as a driving aspect in latest world heritage selections (Landorf 2009 cited in Jones & Munday, 2001). This information was conducted by observations of tourist movements to six heritage sites in the UK.
However as this type of research gathered is a form of observation it may be considered as a genuine approach as visitors do not notice that they are being watch so they would act to their normal nature. This approach allows you to understanding certain tourist’s behaviour patterns which can be based on Mathieson and Wall (1982) consumer buying behaviour model. The research associated with the Mathieson and Wall (1982) consumer buying behaviour model can be considered out dated as it does not look into the current perspectives of geographical approaches to understanding consumer behaviour.
A more current consumer behaviour model will need to be adapted in order to understand today’s tourists as they may differ from the past tourists. Tourism might place stress on world heritage sites which growth, is intensified by which contradicts the standards at the core of the World Heritage Convention, which emphasis that world heritage sites should maintain a function in current community life at the same time being preserved for transmission to future generations (UNESCO, 1972, b).
In this case it is a vital issue that tourism activities should be sustainable in order to allow sites that gain world heritage status to maintain their status (Garrod & Fyall, 2000). The information was conducted using desk top research. This information may be bias as it is based on expert’s personal opinions. Tourism may not be the best solution for the development of heritage sites unless planning is involved. Heritage tourism can influence community developments. For example Wadi Al-Hitan in Egypt, witnessed small scale developments by local communities supplying most of the services available to the visitor’s experiences.
Management of the heritage site worked closely with locals of the site to develop their capacity in regards to the site but also with regards to developing their skills for providing these services to the tourists i. e. tour guides. A positive outcome has been associated with this is economic development of local communities due to well-planned tourism at Wadi Al Hitan. The Canaima National Park in Venezuela and Shiretoko in Japan are other examples of sites that also demonstrate good methods for community involvement and collaboration and hence development of heritage sites (Borges et al, 2011).
This information was collected by taking notes from the interviews from experts in this area of study. Interviews are very effective if conducted using appropriate questions in order to get an instant answer to your questions raised. This method of research is beneficial as it can validate information that already exists. The results for this interview did indicate that there are some positive outcomes for heritage tourism if managed well, however stakeholders will have to involve to community for it to be successful.
Although tourism is normally honoured for being able to reconcile conservation and development goals in or near protected areas, there are existing negative impacts that are affecting world heritage sites status. For example Machu Picchu in Peru faces pressure from 900,000 annual tourists who visit the ancient Inca city. The tourists place a threat on the ecological integrity, physical body and cultural authenticity of the world heritage site and surrounding areas, including the Inca Trail (Larson and Poudyal, 2012).
Information was influenced by Andean tour operators. As they are recognised tour operator this type of research approach is good, as they will have connections with other tourism related institutions in order to understand what is going on in particular countries in terms of tourist flows and impacts to particular destinations which they may be operating in. UNESCO has previously warned about uncontrolled access at Machu Picchu in Peru and advised the authorities to make conservation a priority (BBC news, 2012).
This information was gather from the BBC news is reliable as news is a source which is most current and up to date with worldwide issues. Due to immense tourism developments at heritage sites planning strategies are essential in order to control tourism (Hall, 2008). For a plan to be successful it needs to implement an effective planning approach which is vision and goal oriented, integrative, market driven, resource driven, consultative and systematic (Hall,2008). However Simpson (2001) identified that specific examples of community involvement in the planning process hardly exist.
Environmental and economic objectives are more notional than social objectives, creating problematic process as the three dimensions as they are not being equally treated (Agyeman & Evans, 2003). Figure one illustrates the process in which sustainable tourism should be managed at heritage sites. Through sustainability soft and hard visitor management techniques have been implemented at various heritage sites in order to control and monitor visitor flows cooper et al, 2005. This information was obtained by observing the visitor management techniques implemented at the Great Wall of China.
In this case this is a good method as the results give an understanding of what management techniques effective for heritage sites. Source: (Larson and Poudyal, 2012) Source: (Larson and Poudyal, 2012) Conclusion It is evident that academics in this area of study heavily rely on qualitative research in order to discover their answer. This may be that due to the nature of heritage tourism, the best way to understand the area is by identifying what motivates tourist to this type of tourism and what are the implications, opportunities and solutions in order to sustain heritage tourism.
These types of questions may need to be answered by tourists that participate in this type of tourism and stake holders involved. In this way it can be said that the reason why surveys, interviews and observation methods might be used is to investigate specifically in detail answers that may not be found conducting desk top research, due to the limitations of areas that are specifically studied around a particular academics research. However institutions such as the WTO, OECD use quantitative and qualitative, methods in order measure and monitor progress and direct actions related to tourism related impacts, threats and opportunities.
It can be recommended that academics use both qualitative and quantitative research in order to develop well detailed and effective results around the area of study. Overall it is clear from the study that in order for heritage tourism to be preserved sustainability is the key concept surrounding the phenomenon. Tourists, Stake holders, communities and tourism institutions are equally involve in achieving sustainability in world heritage sites as they each have an effect on the outcomes of its survival in terms of future developments. References Agyeman, J. & Evans, T. (2003). Toward sustainability in urban communities: Building equal rights with sustainable solutions. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences. 590. pp 35–53. BBC news, (2012) Machu Picchu: Peru unveils plans for new airport. Available at: http://www. bbc. co. uk/news/world-latin-america-19353660 [Accessed: 2nd December, 2012] Borges,A. M. ,Carbone,G. ,Bushell,R. and Jaeger,T. (2011) Sustainable tourism and natural World Heritage. Switzerland: IUCN Gland, Switzerland Cooper,C. ,Fletcher,J. ,Fyal,A. , Gilbert,D. & Wanhill,S. 2005)Tourism principles and practice. Essex: Pearson education limited Garrod, B. , & Fyall, A. (2000). Managing heritage tourism. Annals of Tourism Research. 27(3). pp 682–708. Garrod,B. and Fyall,A. Contemporary cases in Tourism. Volume 1. Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers Limited. In UNESCO (2008) World Heritage. Availble at:http://whc. unesco. org/en/list/514 Garrod, B. , & Fyall, A. (2000). Managing heritage tourism. Annals of Tourism Research. 27(3). pp 682–708. *Hall, C. M. (2008). Tourism planning. Policies, processes and relationships, Harlow, Pearson Education Limited
Kolar,T. and zabkar,V. (2010) A consumer-based model of authenticity: An oxymoron or the foundation of cultural heritage marketing. 31 (5) October. pp. 652–66. In Swarbrooke, J. (1999) The development and management of visitor attractions. Oxford Butterworth-Heinemann, Kolar,T. and zabkar,V. (2010) A consumer-based model of authenticity: An oxymoron or the foundation of cultural heritage marketing. 31 (5). October. pp 652–664 Larson,R. L. and Poudyal,C. N. (2012) Developing sustainable tourism through adaptive resource management: a case study of Machu Picchu, Peru. 0(7). pp 917-938 Landorf ,C. ( 2009) Managing for sustainable tourism: a review of six cultural World Heritage Sites. 17(1). pp53-70. In Jones, C. , & Munday, M. (2001). Blaenavon and United Nations World Heritage Site status: Is conservation of industrial heritage a road to local economic development? Regional Studies. 35(6). pp 585–590. Mathieson, A. and Wall, G. (1982) Tourism: Economic, Physical and Social Impacts. Harlow: Longman. Mintel (2010) Cultural and Heritage Tourism – International. Available at:http://academic. mintel. om/display/482710/? highlight=true[Accessed:2nd December, 2012] Nuryanti,W. (1996) HERITAGE AND POSTMODERN TOURISM. Annalr of Tourirm Research. 23 (2) pp. 249-260, Simpson, K. (2001). Strategic planning and community involvement as contributors to sustainable tourism development. Current Issues in Tourism, 4(1). pp 3–41. Timothy, J. D. and Nyaupane, P. G. 2009 Cultural Heritage and Tourism in the Developing World: A Regional Perspective. Oxon: Routledge UNWTO (2012) Tourism and Intangible Cultural Heritage. Available at: http://ethics. unwto. rg/en/content/tourism-and-intangible-cultural-heritage[Accessed: 3rd December,2012] UNESCO. (1972). Convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage. Paris: UNESCO. WTO (2012 a) Tourism and Poverty Alleviation. Available at: http://step. unwto. org/en/content/tourism-and-poverty-alleviation-1[Accessed: 2nd December, 2012] WTO (2012 b) International tourism strong despite uncertain economy. Available at. http://www2. unwto. org/en/press-release/2012-11-05/international-tourism-strong-despite-uncertain-economy[Accessed: 2nd December, 2012] Zeppal, H. and