World Wars

————————————————- Tamil Eelam INTRODUCTION Tamil Eelam (Tamil: ???????? tami? i? am, generally rendered outside Tamil-speaking areas ) is a proposed independent statethat Tamils in Sri Lanka and the Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora aspire to create in the north and east of Sri Lanka. Tamil Eelam has no official status orrecognition by world states though sections of the Eelam were under de facto control of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) for most of the2000s. The name is derived from the ancient Tamil name for Sri Lanka, Eelam.TAMIL PERIOD The Jaffna kingdom (1215-1624 CE), also known as Kingdom of Aryacakravarti, of modern northern Sri Lanka was a historic independent monarchy that came into existence after the invasion of Magha, who is said to have been from Kalinga, in India. [1][2][3][4] Established as a powerful force in the north, east] and west of the island, it eventually became a tribute paying feudatory of the Pandyan Empire in modern South India in 1258, gaining independence later with the fragmentation of the Pandyan control.

1][5] For a brief period, in the early to mid-14th century, it was an ascendant power in the island of Sri Lanka when all regional kingdoms accepted subordination. However, the kingdom was eventually overpowered by the rival Kotte Kingdom, around 1450. ASPIRATION AND CHELVANAYAKAM The Federal Party (Sri Lanka) (FP) became the most dominant Tamil political party in 1956 and lobbied for a unitary state which gave Tamil and Sinhalese equal rights, including recognition of two official languages (Tamil and Sinhala) and considerable autonomy for the Tamil areas.It was against this backdrop that the Federal party decided to sign the Bandaranaike-Chelvanayakam Pact in July 1957.

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In 1965, another pact, the Senanayake-Chelvanayakam Pact was signed but also not implemented. In 1973, Tamil parties’ call for regional autonomy was replaced with the demand for a separate state called Tamil Eelam. Two years later, in 1975, all Tamil political parties merged and became known as the Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF).In 1976, the first national convention of the Tamil United Liberation Front was held at Vaddukoddai, where the party adopted a unanimous resolution called the Vaddukodai Resolution. This resolution charged that the Sinhalese government, with the use of the constitution of 1972, had used its power to “deprive the Tamil nation of its territory, language, citizenship, economic life, opportunities of employment and education thereby destroying all the attributes of nationhood of the Tamil people. The resolution further called for the “Free, Sovereign, Secular Socialist State of TAMIL EELAM”. As a result of the Vaddukodai resolution, the Tamil United Liberation Front became the first Tamil political party to run its campaign on a separatist platform. It swept the parliamentary elections in the Tamil-dominated districts of the North and East in 1977, winning 18 seats and became the largest opposition in Parliament The reason for the success of the TULF was seen as the result of growing Tamil agitation for self-determination.

During the time of the Vaddukodai declaration, there were several Tamil militant organizations who believed that armed struggle was the only way to protect the sovereignty of the Tamil areas. TULF, however, believed in peaceful parliamentary ways towards achieving a solution. [24] Though the TULF had adapted a separatist platform, they were still open to peaceful negotiations and decided to work towards a political agreement with President J.

R Jayewardene. The outcome was the District Development Councils scheme (DDC) passed in 1980.The District Development Councils scheme was based, to some extent, on decentralization of the government within a united Sri Lanka. DDCs were soon abandoned because the two sides were not able to agree to the number of District Ministers in the Tamil districts. [25] In 1983 the Sixth Amendment was passed and required Tamil members of parliament and Tamils in public office to take the oath of allegiance to the unitary state of Sri Lanka.

The Sixth Amendment forbade advocating a separate state even by peaceful means.Consequently, the TULF was expelled from the parliament for refusing to take the oath. [26] THE ERA OF THE LIBERATION TIGERS OF TAMIL EELAM Eelam War IV and Sri Lankan Civil War The parts of northern and eastern Sri Lanka which were formerly under the control of the LTTE were run as a de facto state with its own government in these areas. The Tamil Tigers also established a military wing  with land combat force, naval force (the Sea Tigers), air wing which they called “Tamil Eelam Air Force”, in addition, the LTTE had run a judicial system complete with local, supreme and high courts.The US state department alleged that the judges had very little standards or training and acted as agents to LTTE; it also accused the LTTE of forcing Tamils under their control to accept their judicial system although the Tamils know that they were not forced and that a vote was taken to decide who would take control . Furthermore, within areas controlled by the LTTE the Tigers performed state functions including the operation of a civil Police Force, Human Rights organizations, offices for the coordination of humanitarian assistance board,[30] health boards and education boards. 31][38][39] It also ran a Bank (Bank of Tamil Eelam), a radio station (Voice of Tigers) and a Television station (National Television of Tamil Eelam)[32] Following the clearance of Kilinochchi by government troops which had been the administrative capital of the de facto LTTE controlled area [40] on January 2, 2009, the LTTE’s civil administration system was suspended as the “state” of Tamil Eelam was gradually crushed by the resurgent Sri Lankan Army.The last pocket of territory controlled by the LTTE and vis-a-vis the remaining part of the LTTE controlled area was captured by the Sri Lankan Army on 18 May 2009.

During this operation almost the entire civil and military leadership of the LTTE were killed. Tens of thousands of LTTE cadres surrendered to government troops. POST-LTTE ERA Following the defeat of LTTE, pro-LTTE political party Tamil National Alliance (TNA), also the largest political group representing Sri Lankan Tamil community, dropped its demand for a Tamil Eelam, in favour of a federal solution. 41][42] There are ongoing bilateral talks between President Rajapaksa’s UPFA government and the TNA, on a viable political solution and devolution of power. [43] Pro Tamil groups advocating independence for Tamil areas of Sri Lanka continue to run websites and radio telecasts. [44] Since May 19, 2009 Tamil Eelam has ceased to exist as a physical entity but remains as political aspiration among sections of the Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora.

In May 2010, New York based lawyer Visvanathan Rudrakumaran formed a Transnational Government of Tamil Eelam intending to use soft power to reach its end. [45] ————————————————- POLITICAL DIVISIONS AND DEMOGRAPHICS ————————————————- In the 1881 census, Sri Lankan Tamils numbered 687,200 constituting 25% of the total population. The Tamil-speaking Muslim community who used to live largely in the Northern and the Eastern provinces comprised another 6% of the population.The three decade Civil war that followed the anti-Tamil policies further affected the North and the East with over 80,000-100,000 people estimated to have been killed and over 400,000 Tamils fleeing their homes for refuge. Many people still live in IDP camps in the North and the East and the present-day demographics of the region has been changing due to more and more Sinhalese settling in these territories.

————————————————- POLITICS Main article: Sri Lankan Tamil nationalismThe United Kingdom gained control of Sri Lanka in 1815 and administratively unified the island[18] with a legislative council in 1833 with three Europeans and one each for Sinhalese, Sri Lankan Tamils and Burghers. British Governor William Manning, who arrived in Ceylon in 1919, created a reformed legislative council in 1921 and actively encouraged Sinhala communal thinking in the legislative council. [46][47] As a result, the Tamils started to develop communal consciousness and began to think of themselves as needing to be represented by Tamil leadership. 46][47] It was this development that made way for the development of the Tamil political organization called the All Ceylon Tamil Congress headed by G. G. Ponnambalam. [48][49] SUPPORT FOR TAMIL EELAM India A survey in late 2008 by the Tamil Nadu daily Ananda Vikatan found 55. 4% of Indian Tamils in the state supported the separation of Tamil Eelam, while 34.

63% supported a federal Tamil Eelam. Notable supporters of independence include politicians Vaiko and Thirumavalavan.Directors Bharathiraaja, Seeman and Ameer Sultan are strong advocates of the independence of Tamil Eelam. Muthukumar(Self-immolation of Muthukumar), a DTP operator for a Tamil magazine ‘Penne Nee’ doused himself with kerosene at the Regional Passport Office, Chennai,Tamil Nadu, India and set himself on fire to highlight the Tamil plight. [77] On April 2012 DMK president M.

Karunanidhi said that India should prevail upon the United Nations to help carve out a separate Tamil Eelam from Sinhala-dominated Sri Lanka.Raising the issue in the Lok Sabha during zero hour, DMK leader T. R. Baalu said tyranny in the Tamil areas was continuing and Sinhalese army men were roaming around Tamil habitats in Sri Lanka and “thousands of people have been kept behind barbed wire fences. ” He said the Indo-Sri Lankan accord was not being ratified and the 13th Amendment (devolution of powers to ethnic Tamils) was not being implemented. ————————————————- WORLDWIDE COUNCILS AND ORGANISATIONS Transnational Government of Tamil EelamThe Transnational Government of Tamil Eelam (TGTE) is formed by unification of the Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora which aims to create Tamil Eelam, a state which TGTE aspire to create in the north and east provinces of Sri Lanka.

[  The TGTE and Tamil Eelam have no official status or recognition by any state or authority. The TGTE has been called a “ploy to perpetuate terrorism” by the Government of Sri Lanka,[92] which is itself under international pressure for alleged war crime probes For its part, the TGTE has maintained that it is a democratic organization, and intends to use soft power and not military power to its end. 45] The exact words found in TGTE constitution are : “Whereas the TGTE has guided us towards a democratic system of government, in order to establish an independent state of Tamil Eelam based on the principles of peace, non-violence, tolerance, pluralism, transparency and accountability” CONCLUSION its easy to speak from here but the problems in tamil eelam and the difficulties faced by the tamilans were unspeakable all lost their means of living and their relations the problem will be solved if they are given a sepration from the srilanka by forming a new country