Ethics in Religion and Politics: The PerilsIntroductionEthics is a set of mentioned and unmentioned rules that operates a person’s behavior in every single situation, and these rules are established within a particular culture or in a group, who possess similar values. In fact, it is a mental condition of a person that helps him to differentiate between right and wrong and control his behavior according to his understanding. In terms of religion, ethics is a set of do’s and not do’s guided by the religion.
On the other hand, from the perspective of politics, ethics is a process of selecting behavioral actions on political activities and a process of justifying or deny those activities.Ethics in Religion: Viewpoints of the Political RightPolitical right or capitalism is an economic system where factors of production, i.e., land, labor, capital and the enterprise were owned by private entities (Foss, 2017)(Schumpeter, 2013).
Religious ethics, at some point helpful for capitalism, because it increases production and therefore, it is accepted that capitalism is helpful for religion. During the high middle age (1100-1300), the Church owned almost three fourth of the total land in Europe (Cipolla, 1994). To manage this vast land, they introduced a law and order system in every single countries and state and even in small villages, and they were bound to operate under the rules and regulations of the Catholic Church of that time. Moreover, Catholic Church introduced a common written language (Canon Law Latin) that was used at that time (Brundage, 1991). On that time, human civilization faced some great advancement, from the economic sector, currency took place as a transaction media and banking system was developed with the help of knights. From the technological sector, watermill and windmill, effective transportation system by using trade curts, eyeglass along with magnifying glass, large ocean-going vessels, etc. was a glimpse of the advancement of that time. All of the progress was possible as almost everything was under the jurisdiction of the Catholic Church and they adopt capitalism as their tool to rule this vast continent (Brundage, 1991).
Again as the Catholic Church of the high middle age backed capitalism, general people of that time was inspired to establish a new business, adopt modern technology, took new chances and bring profit from one business to a new region to start a new business. In Fact, a sustainable rule is mandatory for capitalism to predict economic activity, which was provided by the Church at that time. Under this rules, France can import wools from England and England can import crops from France if necessary (Brundage, 1991).Even in this modern civilization, capitalism is highly backed by religion. Capitalism makes people do crazy things for themselves, and the environment and religion make people to do crazy thoughts like resurrection and to move to a place of complete happiness. Besides this, the main theme of capitalism is the private ownership and the ownership of production, distribution and enjoy the profit. On the other hand, the main theme of most of the religion is the personal achievement and personally well-judge from God.
Therefore the main theme is completely aligned with religion and capitalism (Mosk, 2015) (Goodchild, 2002).Moreover, Capitalism is always backed by individuals who have a desire to accumulate wealth to have a better future or treated honorably in the society. And religion influence people to rise his good activities and well treated by the God.
Regarding competition, it holds a major part of capitalism and religion influence people to compete with each other with their good activities (Goodchild, 2002).The main reason for the advancement of that time was competition, and this competition was supported by the Catholic Church. In most of the religion, values of a product or service were not greater than kindness, and regarding capitalism, the benefit we get from the government like the support of emergency time and regular day to day support is often greater than the amount we pay them.Though capitalism is religiously backed by capitalism ethics, capitalism also denied some fundamental rules of politics. As an example; usury is religiously prohibited to 54% people of the world cumulatively (Age of sage), whereas it is a fundamental part of capitalism.
Therefore, from the perspective of ethics, although political rights on capitalism were blessed by religion, there are some significant differences too.Ethics in Politics: Left-Wing IdeologiesPolitical ethics can be defined as the process of mental settlement and judgment of political activities as well as the political leaders. From the perspective of Left-Wing Ideologists, the ethical concept of society and economy along with the human and natural capital altogether creates political ethics (Van der Linden, 1988). Socialism is based on ethics, and therefore, ethics and ethical do’s and don’t do’s plays a vital role in socialism and a socialist community. In general, socialism is the involvement of a group of people who works for collective benefit.
Therefore, the main theme is the common ownership of property and a result of the common ownership of the property, limitations both on individual freedoms and individual losses are an inseparable part of the socialism. In fact, in socialism, to ensure the minimum standard of living, the group should sacrifice a part of its resources (Adam, 1992). Ethically, every person holds equal rights, and these ethical rights have been denied in most of the civilization from the beginning of human history. The ethical practice of socialism is the only way to give people that right. Again in socialism, resources are distributed equally, which ensures everyone’s rights.Again, as people hold equal rights ethically, according to the Left-Wing Ideologies, socialism is the only way to ensure a real people owned democracy.
Again, in capitalism, production is happening under the supervision of the owner, and therefore, democracy cannot found there. Generally, in the society, only 1% people hold the 99% assets. Therefore, socialism is a better way of industrialization as it belongs to everyone as well as the only way to ensure democracy in the workplace (Cunningham, 1987).Equally, a fair justice system is a rare issue as at the judgment favors wealth. To have fair judgment, socialism is mandatory as in socialism; everyone treated equally. Again in terms of gender equality, application of socialism ethics is the only solution as it ensures equal treatment for everyone (Cunningham, 1987).From the perspective of socialism, money barely exists. Moreover, it ensures the equal opportunity of different services like healthcare, electricity, water, transportation, etc.
Furthermore, it ensures education free and mandatory for all. Theoretically, socialism is good, and from the ethical point of view, it is outstanding, but in reality, in the long run, socialism and its ethics are nothing but a curse for human civilization. As an example, it is difficult to motivate a person in the workplace if everyone is treated equally, there will be no differences between high performance and low performance. Again working for common good is a good idea but people are primarily interested in working for personal benefit.
The greater good comes later on. And last but not the list, no matter what, socialism ensures peoples benefit which negatively motivates people to do anything (Wilde, 2016).A Brief Overview of Game TheoryThe game theory can be defined as a study of human behavior in a competitive environment where in between conflict and cooperation took place. In other words, it is a formal structure of making logical decisions in a competitive situation. The origin of game theory goes back to 1944, and John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern were treated as the inventor of this theory (Brams,2011).Game theory is also denoted as a conceptual framework for strategic decision making. It deals with the analysis and application of mathematical models of conflict along with the cooperation between rational decision makers.
Although it was initially introduced as a way to understand economic behaviors of business firms, financial markets, and consumers, in the present time, its use has been extended to analyses of political, sociological, and psychological phenomena.The main assumptions of this theory are, there must be minimum two players, i.e., decision makers who can take independent decisions. There must be long-term rational goals, and decision makers are involved in rational activities to achieve goals.
And last but not the list, the players are aware of the uncertainty and are ready to accept both wins or lose (Brams, 2011).How Game Theory Can Be a Superior Foundation for EthicsAs mentioned earlier, the game theory is a way to predict, explain and evaluate human behavior in the context of several choice and outputs. Therefore game theory is used in moral and political philosophy and it is highly used to build up an ethical foundation.
Nowadays, game theory is treated as an essential tool in perspective of national defense, international trade and even building a relation between nations.On the other hand, political ethics is a process of selecting behavioral actions on political activities as well as justify or deny those activities. Therefore political ethics can be differentiated into different parts. However, how game theory can be a superior foundation of ethics, are given below; Listening to others and the opportunity of free thinking is a fundamental part of political ethics as it gives equal importance to everyone.
From the perspective of game theory, giving others the opportunity to talk increases the possibility of finding options. Regarding a socialist concept, though many rights are ensured, the right to think and speak belongs to the decision makers. On the other hand, in capitalism, though everyone has the opportunity of free thinking, as the assets are not equally distributed, the free-thinking along with decision making became biased. Game theory can be a solution of this ethical reformation (Richelson, 1977).
In politics, criticism is often taking place to push the opponent to an unfavorable position. Game theory, on the other hand, teaches the way to criticize the decisions and arguments, not the person and helps to ensure the ethics of personal rights. Again it is familiar to make unkeepable promises in politics in all dimensions whereas game theory works to establish ethics on keepable promises.And finally, in capitalist politics, assets are centered, and people used to work for personal achievements, whereas game theory helps to build the ethics that there are alternative options to work and grow together. Whereas in socialism, ethically assets belong to everyone and there is no evaluation process at all, whereas game theory works to establish the ethics that evaluation on work is mandatory as well as everyone should ready to accept the consequences of his work (Deutsch, 1954).
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