Even after decades, there’s a lot of
discriminations based on gender still happening in our society. The gender wage
gap is one of them. The gender wage gap is the average difference between wage
received by men and women. The main causes of gender wage gap is education
attainment, occupational segregation, sexual discrimination and women tend to not
negotiate for raises and promotions aggressively. Gender discrimination that
occurs in Indonesia most likely due to the cultural aspects that support it.
According to Wage Indicator (2016), the
social assumption that men are the one whose earnings are the primary source of
support for their dependents, while women deal with housework and family, is
exceptionally solid in Indonesian society. As a result, when women are working,
their position is assumed to be merely that of an ‘extra’ provider. The culture of Indonesian
society to support women not to work allegedly reflects the contribution of
Indonesian women in the labor market. As evidenced by reports from the
International Labor Organization, only about 50 to 55 percent of women in Indonesia
participate in the labor force. The wage paid to men is bigger than the
wage paid to women because he is expected to provide his wife and children a
decent life. While female laborers, even when married, are also legally still
considered single. The World Economic Forum’s Gender Gap Index (2016) data
shows Indonesia has a gender wage gap of 14.5%, meaning that on average Indonesian
women earn 14.5% less than men.
The gender wage gap is disadvantage for
women, it suppressing their income and making it even difficult to balance work
and family. Serious attempts to understand the gender wage gap should not
driven to the blame to women for not earning more. Instead, these attempts
should be to analyze in which sector our economy provides unequal opportunities
for women at every point of their education, training, and career choices.
The non-discriminatory prohibition
contained in the Indonesian Labour Law is based on Article 27 of the 1945
Constitution regarding the status of citizens without discrimination. While the
gender wage gap prohibition is regulated in the Government Regulation act no. 8
of 1981 regarding the wage protection, which affirms that there is no
discrimination in determining wages between male and female laborers for equal
Some of the special rights for female
laborers contained in Law act no. 13 of 2003 :
1. Article 81. Women who are on period and
feeling sick (and then tell it to the employer), permitted to not to go to work
on the first and second day of menstruation.
2. Article 82 (1). Women deserve to get a
time to rest for one and a half months before giving birth and one and a half
months after it (according to the calculation by obstetrician or midwife).
3. Article 82 (2). Women who suffer from
miscarriage are deserve to get a rest for one and a half months or depends on
the suggestion by obstetrician or midwife.
4. Article 83. Women deserve to get a time
to breastfeed their children if it should be done during worktime.