Naturalization is the process whereby the pH, a measure of acidity (= negative log of the concentration of H+ ions in mol / Adam) is changed to the extent that it goes from being alkaline (pH range above 7 – 14) to Neutral (pH 7) or from being acidic (pH range below 7 to O) to Neutral. This process usually occurs when an acid is added to an alkali. Acid+base->salt+water. An acid will turn red litmus paper red, and blue litmus paper red. 22. A base will turn red litmus paper blue and blue litmus paper blue. 23. A) Review the effects of other acid-base indicators studied in class, especially phenolphthalein and biorhythms lee. 23 b). A pH of 1 is 10,000 x more acidic than a pH of 5. 24. Review the meaning of and the relationship between the numbers found beside the element symbols in the periodic table. AAA). What is combustion?
What products are produced as a result of combustion? Reactions in which a compound or element combines with oxygen gas to produce an oxide Reaction gives off energy (exothermic) bob) Explain the difference between endothermic and exothermic. Endothermic reaction: reaction where thermal energy is entered into the equation Exothermic reaction: reaction where thermal energy is given off as a product 26. Explain valence electrons. The outer electron shell of an atom is called the valence shell and the electrons in this shell are called valence electrons 27. Review Lewis dot diagrams of elements and ions. 28. What are diatomic molecules? Give examples.
Diatomic molecules are molecules composed only of two atoms, of either the same or different chemical elements Hydrogen- Hidden- nitrogen- Anchorite- Covering- Bergen- fluorine- OFF 29. Show the similarities and differences between atoms and ions. An atom can be an ion, but not all ions are atoms. There are distinct differences between an atom and an ion. An atom is the defining Truckee of an element. Elemental atoms differ from each other by the number of protons in their nucleus. For example, one way to tell oxygen atoms from nitrogen atoms would be to count the number of protons each atom has. Oxygen will have eight where nitrogen will have seven. Stable atoms have the same number of electrons as the number of protons.
These electrons form orbital’s around the nucleus and cause much of the chemical properties of the element. When an atom’s outermost orbital gains or loses electrons (also known as valence electrons), the atom forms an ion. Loons are atoms or molecules that have gained or lost one or more of heir valence electrons and have a net positive or negative charge. Human Systems 1 . Explain the difference between a plant and animal cell. Plant Cell Animal Cell Cell wall Absent Present (formed of cellulose) Shape Round (irregular shape) Rectangular (fixed shape) Vacuole One or more small vacuoles (much smaller than plant cells). One, large central vacuole taking up 90% of cell volume. Eccentrics Present in all animal cells Only present in lower plant forms.
Chloroplast Animal cells don’t have chloroplasts Plant cells have chloroplasts because they make their own food Cytoplasm Present Present Endoplasmic Reticulum (Smooth and Rough) Present Present Ribosome Present Present Mitochondria Present Present Plasmids Absent Present Googol Apparatus Present Present Plasma Membrane only cell membrane cell wall and a cell membrane Misconstrues/ Misstatements Present Present Flagella May be found in some cells May be found in some cells Lissome Lissome occur in cytoplasm. Lissome usually not evident. Nucleus Present Cilia Present It is very rare 1 . Plant cells are larger than animal cells. 2. Plant cells have chloroplasts unlike animal cells. Plant cells have a cell wall unlike animal cells. 4.
Animal cells have a lot f lissome unlike plant cells. 5. Animal cells have a connectors unlike plant cells. Plant cells have plasticity unlike animal cells. Vacuoles are conspicuous in plant cells than animal cells I. E. Large central vacuole in plant cells. Animal cells can be phagocyte (engulf other cells) unlike plant cells 9. Cells of Higher plants lack eccentrics unlike animal cells. 10. Plant cells have plainclothesman which links pores in the cell wall allow and communication between adjacent cells unlike animal cells. 2. Briefly identify the cell structures and functions. Cytoplasm Suspends all organelles inside the cell Mostly water
Many chemical reactions take place here Change from Jelly-like to liquid Cell membrane Double layered, flexible Supports cell Allow some substances to enter while keeping others out (“semi-permeable”) Nucleus Contains genetic info- controls all cell activities Genetic info stored on chromosomes- contain DNA DNA copied during cell division Mitochondria “power plants” of the cell- make energy available to cell Active cells have more mitochondria Store energy as a form of glucose Cellular respiration- convert stored energy into usable form Glucose+ oxygen-; carbon dioxide+ water+ usable energy Endoplasmic reticulum D network of branching tubes and pockets Transports materials (I. E. Rotten) throughout the cell Brain; production+ release of hormones Muscles; muscle contraction Googol bodies Collect+ process materials to be removed from cell Make and secrete mucus Vacuoles Single layer of membrane enclosing fluid in a sac Function varies according to cell Containing some substances Removing unwanted substances Maintain internal fluid pressure Organelles in plant cells only Cell wall Outside of cell membrane Rigid but porous Provides support for cell+ protection from physical injury Vacuole Takes up most of space in cell Full of water= firm leaves and stems Chloroplasts Contain chlorophyll- give plants their green color Absorbs light energy-used in photosynthesis Photosynthesis= converting carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen Carbon dioxide+ water+ energy-; glucose+ oxygen 3. How do somatic and reproductive cells reproduce? Which process is used to heal the body?
Somatic cells or body cells reproduce by process of Mitosis or simple division. (used to heal the body) Reproductive cells reproduce through meiosis. Meiosis is a somewhat similar but more complex process than mitosis. This is especially true in females. While mitosis produces 2 daughter cells from each parent cell, meiosis results in 4 sex cells, or gametes in males and 1 in females. Unlike the cells created by mitosis, gametes are not identical to the parent cells. In males, meiosis is referred to as cooperativeness because sperm cells are produced. In females, it is called sogginess because ova, or eggs, are the main ultimate product. 4. Outline the steps in mitosis. What happens at each phase?
Enterprise: the phase of the cell cycle during which the cell performs its normal functions and its genetic material is copied in preparation for the cell division Proposes: the first stage of dittos, in which the chromosomes become visible and the nuclear membrane dissolves Metastases: the second stage of mitosis, in which the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell Anapest: the third phase of mitosis, in which the sister chromatics separate into daughter chromosomes, and each moves toward opposite ends of the cells Telephone: the final phase of mitosis, in which the chromatics unwind and a nuclear membrane reforms around the chromosomes at each end of the cell Cytokines: the stage in the cell cycle when the cytoplasm divides to form two identical cells; the final part of cell division 5. Explain the process of cytokines in a plant and animal cell. Animal cells: cell membrane pinches off Plant cells: plate forms across centre of cell, forming a new cell wall 6. As a result of growth, cells will either divide of die as they become inefficient at transporting materials into the cell. It is not known which will happen. What has to happen before the cell divides?