A key reason for this is that the position of women has changed and they now have legal equality with men, so they are free to go out to work and because of this women are postponing giving birth so they can have a career and the average age to give birth is now 29. 6 so the total fertility rate (the average number of children a women will have during their retile years) is now lower because women have fewer fertile years left by the time that they start a family so they have fewer children.
Another reason that we now have a lower birth rate is because the infant mortality rate (the number of infants who die before their first birthday, per 1000 babies born alive, per year) has fallen due to better healthcare since the invention of the INS in 1 949 and because less babies are dying parents are no longer having insurance babies so they are having less children therefore the birth rate has fallen.
A third reason is the change in our views of children, Aries says that holiday is now socially constructed to be a uniquely important time in a chi lid’s life, this has encouraged families to consider the quality of their child’s upbringing so they are now having fewer children to allow the few that they do have to have a better upbringing for example It now costs El 86,000 on average to get a child to their 21 SST birthday and a lot of families can’t afford this for multiple children so they limit the amount they’re having to give them a better quality of life which has lead to a decrease in the birth rate.
Even though the birth rate has generally been going down we have had a few baby moms which is when there is a large fluctuation in the birth rate, the main baby booms were after the first and second world wars after service men returned to their wives and also there was one in the 1 ass’s because of the change in attitudes towards women and the hippie culture which lead to women having more sexual freedoms and a baby boom.
Death rate is the number of deaths per 1 000 of the population per year. The death rate has decreased since 1 900, in 1 990 it was 19 and by 2007 it was 10. Trainer says the key reason for the decline in death rate was due to the fall in the number f deaths from infectious diseases such as measles and tuberculosis. These diseases were most common young people so the death rate most fell for people aged between O and 19.
Social factors have also influenced the decline in the death rate for example improved knowledge of nutrition, McKeon said that the improved nutrition was responsible for half the reduction in the death rate and the better nutrition meant a higher resistance to infection and improved survival rates if you were infected because of an improved immune system. Life expectancy is how long on average a person born in a given year an expect to live and as the death rates have fallen the life expectancy has increased.
If you were born in 1900 (female) you could expect to live to 57 and if you were born in 2004 you could expect to live to 81. 21 The higher life expectancy is due to medical knowledge improving which has led to people living longer and so the death rate has fallen. Net migration is the difference between the numbers of people immigrating (the movement into an area or society) and the numbers of people emigrating (the movement out of an area or city), it is either expressed as a net increase or net decrease due to migration.