Examples of New Approach of DrugDelivery System1. Printing OfSmall Molecular Medicines From The Vapor PhaseThe growingneed to develop efficient methods for early stage drug discovery, continuousmanufacturing of drug delivery vehicles, and ultra-precise dosing of highpotency drugs. The manufacturer of film form medicine like the dispersion ofAPI particles in a matrix of polymer by doing the mixing, spraying, dipping andfolloed by extrusion or casting (18). The approaches were suffer from limiteddispersion of particle, stability, and loading of drug, in particular ifworking with nanoparticles(14). To overcome the problem above, we using aprocess which originally developed to achieve the continuity, free of solvent,big scale, high-troughput, yet ultra-precise printing of small-molecularorganic semiconductor or what we called as organic vapor jet printing (OVJP)(22) as the results we got the small pharmaceutical ingredients molecular whichis have the nanocrystalline morphology.
The printed films show dissolutionkinetics substantially enhanced compared with it’s powder form.2. Mesoporoussilica nanoparticles as controlled release drug delivery and gene transfectioncarriersAtsome cases, for example the chemotheraphy for cancer, the current treatmentmethod mainly rely on the use of cytotoxic drugs that only have limitedeffectiveness and adverse side effect. Many studies have indicated theseproblems could be caused by the lack of target specificity in the formula ofantitumor drugs.
To overcome this problems a pursuit to design a targetspecific drug delivery system that can transport an effective dosage of drugmolecules to targeted tissues and cells is the answer. At first, it looksnearly impossible to found the material that have high fondness for adsorbingcertain drug molecules, yet willingly to release the same compound uponreaching the designated tissues or cells. Recently some of “smart” drugdelivery system which is biodegradable compounds such as liposomes, dendrimers, and polymericnanoparticles that can control the release of pharmaceutical drugs solution ofwater upon the degradation of the carrier trigerred by various factor forexample the pH or under physiological conditions. While some drug deliverysystem have been following this approach, it is still a challenge to eliminatethe premature release of drug in these structurally unstable compounds. Inanother hands some good progress shown promise on the uses of mesoporous silicananoparticles as intracellular controlled release drug delivery agents.
Themechanism which transformed non-functionalized MSN into stimuli-responsive drugdelivery agents have been established, although further improvements areexpected in terms of increasing the inventory of gatekeepers and controlledrelease mechanisms. With this great potential, in the future application it ispossible that some functionalized MSN perform specific tasks inside ofcells.(2)3.
Goldnanoparticles in delivery applicationsGoldnanoparticles (GNPs) have recently emerged as an attractive candidate as andrug delivery agents because it provide non-toxic carriers for drug and genedelivery application. The other advantage is their ease of synthesis, themonodisperse of gold nanoparticles can be formed with core sizes ranging from 1nm to 150 nm and also the photophysical properties could trigger drug releaseat certain places. Figure 1. Variousapplication of gold nanoparticles in theraphyInbiomolecules, GNPs have shown the success as drug delivery materials forDNA/RNA, peptides and proteins.
It is been known that viruses could provide avehicle for gene theraphy and had been shown highly efficient. (52) Theeffective delivery vehicles need to provide efficient protection of nucleicacid from degradation by nucleases, efficient cell entry, and release of thenucleic acid in functional form in the nucleus (55). GNPs can be made a small particleto provide a high surface to volume ratio, maximizing the carrier ratio. Thereis also a photothermal effect of gold nanoparticles in theraphy. El Sayed etal. have recently reported about potential use of GNPs in photothermaldestruction of tumors (68). Citrate-stabilized GNPs (core d=30 nm) were coatedwith anti-EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) to target HSC3 cancer cells(human oral squamous cell carcinoma).
The use of GNPs enhanced the efficacy ofphotothermal therapy by 20 times. The GNPs have been showing its promisingresults as an drug delivery agents. Mostly because of it’s combination of lowinherent toxicity, high surface area and tunable stability provides them withunique attributes that should enable new delivery strategies.