Exercise physiology

About 100 B. C. , Cicero observed that “exercise and temperance can preserve something of our strength in old age. ” Aristotle stressed the need for exercise to maintain “a healthy mind in a healthy body. ” In the Misneh Torah, the twelfth century Jewish scholar and physician, Rabbi Moses Maimonides, strongly recommended daily exercise and warned that “anyone who sits around idle and takes no exercise will be subject to physical discomforts and failing strength.

” Early in the eighteen century, the renowned British physician, Thomas Addison, said: “Exercise ferments the humours, casts them into their proper channels, throw off redundancies, and helps nature in these secret distributions without which the body cannot subsist in its vigour or the soul act with cheerfulness. ” In 1799, the Englishman, Thomas Easton, evaluated the lifestyles of 1,712 people over one hundred years of age in a book on human longevity and concluded: “It is not the rich and the great, nor those who depend on medicine, who become old: but such as use much exercise.

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For the idler never attains a remarkable great age. ” In 1864, an English physiologist, Edward Smith, performed the first systematic studies on the physiologic and metabolic responses to exercise. He reported a higher mortality rate among people in sedentary occupations compared with those who were physically active. In the United States exercise and fitness were popular with the founding fathers, among them (Benjamin Franklin, John Quincy Adams, and Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson) was particularly enthusiastic about walking. “Habituate you to walk fast without fatigue,” he wrote.

INTRODUCTION

When we talk about exercise, we nearly always refer to physical exercise. Exercise is the physical exertions of the body – making the body do a physical activity which results in a healthy or healthier level of physical fitness and both physical and mental health. In other words, exercise aims to maintain or enhance our physical fitness and general health. People exercise for many different reasons. Some of them are for fun, to socialize and also controlling their body weight. People don’t exercise for some various reasons. People who do regular activity have a lower risk of many chronic diseases like stroke, diabetes, and some cancers.

Doing physical activity can also boost self-esteem, mood and also sleep quality. So as we get older we need more exercise to avoid gaining any diseases. Different Types of Exercise The four different types of exercise or types of physical exercises. 1. Exercise that improves muscle and bone strength (strength/resistance exercise) 2. Exercise that improves joint and muscle flexibility (flexibility exercise) 3. Exercise that improves endurance and stamina (cardiovascular) 4. Exercise that enhances your balance and coordination. Types of Exercise: a) Strength/resistance exercise.

Strength exercise improves the capability of your muscles and bones. Every physical movement that we do uses muscles and muscle groups. Our entire body depends on our muscles and bones, the skeletal structure, as a strong frame. An excellent way to get some strength training and maximize the benefits of walking, which is a great cardiovascular activity, is to add hand/wrist weights. Whenever I’ve used hand or legs weights while walking, I’ve noticed a definite increase in speed of results, feeling fit faster! Doing some regular strength training will help to reverse weakened muscles and alleviate pain that comes from having weak muscles.

As you strengthen the muscles in your body, your stamina also improves. This form of exercise also increases bone mass and density. b) Flexibility Exercise “Flexibility “comes from the word “flex”, which means to bend, like at the elbow or contract, like a muscle (get shorter in length. )Flexibility Exercises improve your ability to move naturally, improve your posture, your ability to breathe more deeply and naturally and it’s one of the types of exercise that improves your circulation and alleviates the muscle tension that accompanies stress. c) Cardiovascular Exercise.

This category includes all types of aerobic exercise. Cardiovascular exercise improves how well your body gets in uses oxygen by improving the ability of your lungs, heart and blood circulation to deliver it all the cells in your body, which is required for your body to survive. Cardiovascular exercise improves your ability to engage in any physical activity for longer periods of time because it increases the ability of the lungs and heart to get oxygen to the large muscle groups that are used during physical activity. There are many types of exercise that improve our cardiovascular system.

Types of aerobics exercise are all cardiovascular because they all improve the ability of the body to take in and utilize oxygen. The word “Aerobic” means “with air” and actually refers to aerobic metabolism, not exercise. However, the term “aerobics refers to any repetitive, fairly low intensity exercise involving large muscle groups. Aerobics improve the ability of the heart and lungs to provide oxygen to the working muscles. “Aerobics” as one of the type’s physical exercises became popular during the 1980’s as the main focus of the “fitness” craze then. d) Balance Exercise

We don’t hear too much about exercises to improve balance but engaging in the other three types of exercise does have a beneficial effect on balance. Walking, a cardiovascular exercise, improves balance. So does rebounding, or mini trampoline exercise, which actually gives you strength, cardiovascular and flexibility benefits all in one simple activity. IV. Advantage & Disadvantages of Exercise Exercising can be fun and invigorating when done properly over your lifespan. Even though there might be some mild risks and side effects, it is still a necessary activity that can improve your quality of life.

Many forms of rehab use exercise at varying intensities to bring a patient back to a state of physical independence. Cardiac rehab and physical therapy are two examples of working muscles through exercise to reduce patients’ level of pain or increase their functional capabilities. Physical advantages According to (Mayoclinic. org), just 30 minutes of moderate can be significantly beneficial in many areas for your physical health. One main physical advantage of exercise that people may be looking for is weight loss.

Even if your main purpose of exercising is to lose weight, you can also lower your blood pressure; increase your good cholesterol, HDL; manage or prevent diabetes; and prevent certain cancers, like prostate and colon cancer. Mental advantages When you exercise, your body releases a natural chemical stimulus called endorphins. These endorphins can help to change your mood and reduce pain. Moderate to intense exercise can also help to reduce stress, improve self-esteem, reduce anxiety and increase sleep. Training Disadvantages If you don’t have any proper training regimen, it can lead to frustration and pain.

If you are under training, you may find you reach a plateau in your progress. If this plateau causes you to give up on exercising altogether, you lose the unseen benefits of what you are doing, such as improving your heart. Conversely, you could be over training, which has its own physical issues. If you over train, you could suffer from lack of sleep, increased heart rate at rest, lack of energy, compromised immune system and muscle or joint pain. Consult a health fitness professional to determine what your best training regimen should include.

Injury Risk

Anytime your muscles are used beyond a normal day-to-day intensity, they will get sore. This is due to microscopic tears and swelling that occurs in the muscle tissue. But you also run the risk of debilitating injury to your body when you don’t use proper form during weight or cardio training or when you choose an exercise that is inappropriate for your fitness level. For example, exercising that involves moderate to high impact puts stress on your body. Even though this helps to build bone density, an individual who already has frail bones can damage a bone under the smallest amount of stress or impact.

And an injury may not only prevent you from exercising, but it may restrict your daily routine, as well. Health Benefits of Exercise Regular exercise can help protect you from heart disease and stroke, high blood pressure, noninsulin-dependent diabetes, obesity, back pain, osteoporosis, and can improve your mood and help you to better manage stress. For the greatest overall health benefits, experts recommended that you do 20 to 30 minutes of aerobic activity three or more times a week and some type of muscle strengthening activity and stretching at least twice a week.

However, if you are unable to do this level of activity, you can gain substantial health benefits by accumulating 30 minutes or more of moderate-intensity physical activity a day, at least 5 times a week. If you have been inactive for a while, you may want to start with less strenuous activities such as walking or swimming at a comfortable pace. Beginning at a slow pace will allow you to become physically fit without straining your body. Once you are in better shape, you can gradually do more strenuous activity. How Physical Activity Impacts Health.

Regular physical activity that is performed on most days of the week reduces the risk of developing or dying from some of the leading causes of illness and death in the United States. * Reduces the risk of dying prematurely * Reduces the risk of dying prematurely from heart disease. * Reduces the risk of developing diabetes. * Reduces the risk of developing high blood pressure. * Helps reduce blood pressure in people who already have high blood pressure. * Reduces the risk of developing colon cancer. * Reduces feelings of depression and anxiety. * Helps control weight.

* Helps build and maintain healthy bones, muscles, and joints. * Helps older adults become stronger and better able to move about without falling. * Promotes psychological well-being. Specific Health Benefits of Exercise Heart Disease and Stroke Daily physical activity can help prevent heart disease and stroke by strengthening your heart muscle, lowering your blood pressure, raising your high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels (good cholesterol) and lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels (bad cholesterol), improving blood flow, and increasing your heart’s working capacity.

High Blood Pressure

Regular physical activity can reduce blood pressure in those with high blood pressure levels. Physical activity also reduces body fatness, which is associated with high blood pressure. Noninsulin-Dependent Diabetes By reducing body fatness, physical activity can help to prevent and control this type of diabetes. Obesity Physical activity helps to reduce body fat by building or preserving muscle mass and improving the body’s ability to use calories. When physical activity is combined with proper nutrition, it can help control weight and prevent obesity, a major risk factor for many diseases.

Back Pain By increasing muscle strength and endurance and improving flexibility and posture, regular exercise helps to prevent back pain. Osteoporosis Regular weight-bearing exercise promotes bone formation and may prevent many forms of bone loss associated with aging. Psychological Effects Regular physical activity can improve your mood and the way you feel about yourself. Researchers also have found that exercise is likely to reduce depression and anxiety and help you to better manage.