Fatima Hussein Nordic Johnson Jessica Rigging Amoeba: It Is a unicellular protozoan that lacks a definite shape. Live In both fresh water and marine habitats. Some are found In soil, and many have adapted to parallels life on the body of marine animals or Internal organs of both aquatic and terrestrial animals. Amoeba reproduces asexually by binary and multiple felons. They eat algae, bacteria, other protozoan, and tiny particles of dead plant or animal matter.

Bacillus: They are rod shaped, gram positive bacteria found in soil and water. The largest are mom across and mom long. Most are aerobic but some under certain conditions can be facultative anaerobes. Each bacterium creates only one spore, which is resistant to heat, cold, radiation, desiccation, and disinfectants. Copernicus: It is a small genus of mushrooms that decomposes organic matter in nature. They belong to the kingdom fungi. Copernicus can grow alone or In clusters, lines, or fairy rings on lawns, wood chips, or hard-packed ground. The common fungus Is couplers comates.

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Euglena Is a genus of unicellular protests, which belong to the class of Goldenseal In he phylum of Euglena. Over 1000 species have been identified. They are often found commonly residing in salt and fresh waters. They are asexual and reproduce through cell division. Euglena typically have an oval shaped, bright green body, with a flagellum attached to the round anterior end for movement while the posterior end is narrower. Euglena lack cell wall but instead have a follicle, which maintains its shape. The central area of the cell contains the nucleus, which contains the DNA, and carries out vital cell activities.

Moreover, some Euglena species are unique single- led microorganisms because they have mixed characteristics similar to both plants and animals. Such as plants, they are able to prepare and consume food through a method of atrophy by using chloroplast present In them to photosynthesis. On the hand, they are salary to animals because also able to consume food particles through a method of heterodoxy by engulfing them. Mycobacterium Is a genus of Scatterbrain, which belong to the family of Mycobacterium. Many species of this 120 different species among the genus.

They are Gram positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-endoscope forming bacteria. They are specifically known for being acid fast. These microorganisms have a thick outer membrane because of mycology acid present in them. Due to this layer, they are waxy and hydrophobic. They are able to survive exposure to acids, detergents, and several antibiotics. The cell wall causes nutrients to enter the cell slowly giving off a slow growth rate affect. The most pathogenic species can cause serious diseases in humans such as leprosy, and tuberculosis.

The Nonstop species can be found in various environmental habitats, mainly aquatic and terrestrial areas. They are commonly found in soil, fresh and salt waters, and on gist rocks. They are single celled, lack a nucleus and reproduce through binary fission. They are atrophic microorganisms. They use the cytoplasm photosynthetic pigments to photosynthesis for nutrition. These microorganisms are able to maintain a symbiotic relationship with other organisms such as fungi, ferns, and mosses because they act as a nitrogen fixer in certain environmental areas.

The cells grow in chain like structures, and form filamentous structures called trochees. Some species of Nonstop are edible, and are considered a delicacy in certain areas such as China. Paramecium can move, digest food and reproduce. Paramecium belongs to the kingdom of Protests. They live in fresh water ponds, lakes, streams, and puddles. The Paramecium’s body is flat and has a blunt anterior with pointed posterior ends. Paramecium’s are single celled organisms with an outer layer called Follicle. Also, it contains cilia around the outside.

The cilia are arranged in longitudinal rows called kinetics. The inside of a paramecium is a Jelly like fluid called protoplasm. Bits of food and other materials float around in the protoplasm. There common form of prey is bacteria. Furthermore, Paramecium play an important part in cleaning ground water as it makes its way back into wells and aquifers. Penicillin species are heterocyclic. Penicillin is an example of an anamorphic that arose from a mutation in a teleprompter. Historically, fungi whose sexually cycle had not been observed were put in a holding category or Terracotta.

Most fungi contain secondary metabolites. It is used to create antibiotics like penicillin. In the cell wall of the Penicillin species contain slogans. Also, Penicillin spores have a hydrophobic surface, but they are able to be wet so germination can occur. They grow better with high water levels and are able to tolerate low water potential. They can be found on food, leather, and fabrics. Penicillin can grows as mold on decaying fruits and ripening cheese and are used in the production of penicillin. Rhizomes is a genus that can cause disease and can be found as a contaminant.

The colonies grow rapidly and resemble cotton candy. This fungus will reproduce asexually most of the time. Two opposite mating strains are necessary for sexual reproduction. An example is Rhizomes stonier, the common black bread mold. The asexual spores of Rhizomes are expressionless. Rhizomes can be found in soil, fruits and vegetables, animal feces, and old bread. Chromosomes is a genus in the kingdom of fungi that includes many species of yeast. Colonies of Chromosomes grow rapidly and mature in three days.

They are flat, smooth, moist, glistening or dull, and cream to tannins cream in color. Chromosomes cause food spoilage of sugar-rich foods, such as maple sap, syrup, is filamentous green algae that can often form flimsy green aggregates in freshwater ponds. It is distinguished by having unbranded filaments and with chloroplasts forming a spiral ribbon Just under the cell surface. Spirogyra is a genus of filamentous green algae of the order Gunmetal’s, named for the helical or spiral arrangement of the chloroplasts that is diagnostic of the genus.

The chloroplasts are ribbon shaped, serrated or scalloped, and spirally arranged, resulting in the prominent and characteristic green spiral on each filament. Each chloroplast contains several paranoids, centers for the production of starches, appearing as small round bodies. Staphylococcus is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria. Under the microscope, they appear round (Cisco), and form in grape-like clusters. Most are armless and reside normally on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and other organisms.

Found worldwide, they are a small component of soil microbial flora. Volvo Algae are simple plant organisms found in all wet environments. They range in size from microscopic forms to the simple macroscopic forms of ‘pondered’, and the large seaweeds. These are spherical colonies of green cells clinging to a semi-transparent hollow ball of mucilage. A single colony may consist of over 500 cells, each one with a tiny pair of whip-like tails (flagella) – and all cells undulating their flagella in unison, propelling the colony through the water.

Experiment 1: Microbial growth curve determination Introduction: The purpose of this study is to become familiar with the population growth dynamics of bacterial cultures. In order to do so, bacterial growth studies requires inoculation of viable cells into a sterile broth medium and incubation of the culture under optimum temperature, pH, and gaseous conditions. Under these conditions, the cells will reproduce rapidly and the dynamics of microbial growth can be charted by plotting the increase of cell numbers versus time of incubation.

The curve can be used to delineate stages of the growth cycle. The different stages of a happily growth curve are lag phase: the cells are increasing in size but there is no increase in numbers; logarithmic phase: there is a rapid exponential increase in population; stationary phase: the number of cells undergoing division is equal to the number of cells dying, therefore there is no further increase in cell number; and decline or death phase: the microorganisms die at a rapid and uniform rate. Materials: 5-10 hour (log phase) E. Oil liquid media, 37 co water bath shaker incubator, Bausch & Lomb Spectroscopic 20 spectrophotometer, 13 x 100 mm curettes, Quebec colony counter, 24 sterile Petri dishes, 1 ml and 10 ml sterile pipettes, canonical petting device, glassware marking pencil, 1000 ml beaker and Bunsen burner. Procedure: 1 . Add one drop of 24-hour culture on 9 ml Mueller-Hints broth. 2. Incubation at 37 co in a rotating shaker. 3. Optic Density was measured every 30 minutes. Results/Discussion: At 2:00-2:30 there was an increase in size, but no cell division.

At 3:00 there was an increase in population known as Logarithmic phase. This phase can vary depending on the organism. At 3:30 there was a decrease in Experiment 2: The Effect of Disinfectants on Microbial Growth Introduction: There are agrarianism everywhere around us in the environment, but a few can survive under possible environment conditions. Each species has their own range of conditions which they can thrive, grow and reproduce. Disinfectants are chemicals that kill microorganisms, but not necessarily their spores; they are used on inanimate objects.

The effectiveness of the disinfectant depends on the time, temperature and concentration. Does disinfectant limits the growth of Bacillus cereus and how much. Materials and Methods: (a) One large agar plate inoculated with Bacillus cereus and divided into eight parts. Using Amply, Bleach, 95% Ethanol, Hydrogen peroxide, Also, Listening, Rubbing alcohol and scope. (b) All eight disinfectants were placed into beakers with filter paper disc soaked with each disinfectant. (c) A sterilize tweezers used to remove saturated filter paper disc from each beaker and placed in the inoculated agar plate for each disinfectant. D) The apparatus was placed in incubation for a week and then was measured and recorded to see the effect of disinfectants on Bacillus cereus. Results and Discussion: The experiment was conducted to show the effect of disinfectants on microbial growth. The results of the disinfectants on Bacillus cereus varies on each disinfectant reflecting the concentration and diffusion rate. The table shows the different size zone in diameter of each disinfectant. Inhibiting action of disinfectants on bacterial growth (diameter in mm) Species Amply Bleach 95% Ethanol H2O Also Listening Rubbing Alcohol Scope B. Rues Table C 13 17 10 7 Results: The disinfectant with the higher concentration had more effect on Bacillus cereus, because it is endoscope positive and so the higher the concentration the more spores it will likely kill. Experiment 3: The antibiotic activity determination. Introduction: Chemotherapeutic agents are chemical substances used in the treatment of infectious diseases. Their purpose is to interfere with microbial metabolism, therefore producing a biostatistics effect on the microorganism.

Antibiotics are synthesized and secreted by some true bacteria, stationmasters, and fungi that destroy or inhibit the growth of other microorganisms. Some antibiotics are laboratory synthesized or modified. In the lab we used a procedure known as the Kirby-Bauer method. It is used to determine the drug susceptibility of microorganisms isolated from infectious processes. Materials: The following cultures we used are: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus erasures and Bacillus cereus. Antibiotics used: Streptomycin, Tetracycline, Pantomimic, Penicillin, Chronological, and SSP.

Other materials such as agar plates, antimicrobial sensitivity discs, Sense-disc dispensers, Bunsen burner, sterile cotton swabs, permanent marker, and a millimeter ruler was used. Procedures: The first procedure is labeling the covers of the agar plates. Next, inoculate all plates with the organisms given using a swab. Cover the entire surface of the agar plate. Then, allow plates to dry for about five minutes. Using the Sense-disc dispenser, apply the antibiotic disc by placing the dispenser over the agar surface and press the plunger.

Next, press each disc down gently with the wooden end of the cotton swab. Lastly, incubate all plate cultures in an inverted position for twenty four to forty eight hours at thirty seven degrees Celsius. Results: The results show that E. Coli was most resistant to Streptomycin, Pantomimic, and Penicillin. The least resistant to E. Coli was Tetracycline and Psychological. Penicillin was the most resistant to all three bacteria and the most susceptible. Experiment 4: Effect of Temperature on Microbial Growth employed worldwide.

Bacteria can tolerate different temperatures of heat, which is genetically determined. Generally, the cold inhibits growth, and heat kills bacteria. A microorganism’s heat sensitivity is dependent upon various factors such as pH, cell density, container size, moisture content, and medium composition. Materials and Methods: In the lab we used the inoculating loop technique, aseptic technique, and the plate streaking method. For this experiment the following materials were used: thermometer, inoculating loop, Petri plates containing nutrient agar, test tubes, and a water bath with water.

For this experiment the following ultras were assigned to each group: Cultures in lab: Table 1 and 2-Escherichia Coli, Table 3 and 4 Bacillus subsists, and Table 5 and 6 Microcosmic lutes Cultures in the book and results chart: Group A -Bacillus subsists, Group B- Staphylococcus erasures, Group C- Escherichia Coli, and Group D- Serrated mercenaries For this experiment we labeled the plates of nutrient agar with appropriate time sections- O, 1 execs, inns, inns, 1 inns, and minis along with bacteria names, and temperatures of 56, 78, and 100 degrees Celsius.

Next, we set up the bacteria test tubes in the water bath for the assigned time, and temperature. After, we streaked the assigned organisms using the correct method to the appropriate plates. Next, we raised the temperature of the water and the time allotted and repeated the streaking step each time between each interval. Results and Discussion: The results lead the observer to conclude that Bacillus subsists and bacteria with endoscopes are more resistant to heat.

Also, one can also conclude from this experiment that the lower temperature takes longer to kill the bacteria, while the higher the temperature the shorter time it takes to kill. Experiment 5: Effect of ultraviolet on microbial growth Introduction: The purpose of this experiment is to examine the effects of ultraviolet radiation on bacteria. Radiation differs in wavelength and energy. The shorter wavelengths have more energy. X ray and gamma rays are forms of ionizing radiation, while some ionizing wavelengths are essential for biochemical process.

The effect is influenced by many variables, such as the age of the cells, media composition, and temperature. Ionizing wavelength between 15 and 390 NM is called ultraviolet (IV). Wavelengths below 200 NM are absorbed by air and do not reach living organisms. The most lethal wavelengths, sometimes called biocide’s, are n the I-C.V. range, 200-290 NM. IV light induces pyridine dimmers in the nucleic acid, which results in a mutation. When pyridine dimmers are exposed to visible light, photolysis are mechanism, called dark repair, is independent of light.

As a sterilizing agent, IV radiation is used to sterilize some heat-labile solutions, to decontaminate hospital operating rooms and food-processing areas, and to disinfect waste water. Materials: Bacterial cultures (M. lutes, E. Coli, S. Mercenaries, Bacillus subsists), Petri dish containing nutrient agar, sterile cotton swabs, ultraviolet lamp (Mann), cover: aluminum foil Procedure: 1 . Swab the surface of each plate with one of the cultures; to ensure complete coverage, swab the surface in two directions. Label the plates. 2.

Remove the lid of an inoculated plate and cover one-half of the plate with aluminum foil. Cover one-half of each of the remaining plates with the same material. 3. Place each plate directly under the IV light CACM from the light with the cover off, agar-side up. Plate A: Expose for 15 seconds. Replace the lid and incubate. Plate B: Expose for 30 seconds. “… Cover the plate with piece of glass ” Plate C: Expose for 2 minutes. ” incubate in dark incubator” 4. Incubate all three plates, inverted, at CHIC or at room temperature until the next period. . Examine all plates and record your results. Results/Discussion: The longer exposures to IV light the quicker killing effect on bacterium. At two minutes Escherichia coli is most affected, while Bacillus subsists spore is more resistant to ultraviolet radiation. The colored of cells are more resistant to IV light. Reference Cappuccino, James G. Laboratory Manual for General Microbiology. Confiscator, California: Pearson Custom Publishing, 2006. Clockwise, Joan. Microbial. 2005..