The body mass index (BMI), or Quetelet index, is a measure for human body shape based on an individual’s mass and height. Devised between 1830 and 1850 by the Belgian polymath Adolphe Queteletduring the course of developing “social physics”, it is defined as the individual’s body mass divided by the square of their height – with the value universally being given in units of kg/m2. † The BMI is used in a wide variety of contexts as a simple method to assess how much an individual’s body weight departs from what is normal or desirable for a person of his or her height.
There is however often vigorous debate, particularly regarding at which value of the BMI scale the threshold for overweight and obese should be set, but also about a range of perceived limitations and problems with the BMI. OBESITY Obesity is a medical conditionin which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to reducedlife expectancy and/or increased health problems. People are considered obese when their body mass index(BMI), a measurement obtained by dividing a person’s weight inkilograms by the square of the person’s height in metres, exceeds 30 kg/m2
Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases, particularly heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis.  Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food energy intake, lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility, although a few cases are caused primarily by genes,endocrine disorders, medications or psychiatric illness. Evidence to support the view that some obese people eat little yet gain weight due to a slow metabolism is limited; on average obese people have a greater energy
expenditure than their thin counterparts due to the energy required to maintain an increased body mass OBESITY IN TEENS Doctors and parents are concerned about what causes teen obesity, because the number of obese teenagers continues to rise. The estimated numbers of overweight and obese teenagers varies by study, but they all agree the numbers are too high. Anywhere from 16% to 33% of teenagers are considered to be overweight or obese, and there is no reduction in sight. Unless something is done to change the trend, teenagers will continue to see similar health problems found in obese adults.
The definition of an overweight teenager is a person who has a body mass index(BMI) that is 85% to 95% of other teens’ BMI in the same age group. An obese teen BMI is over 95% for their age group. Teenagers are children who are younger than 19 years old but older than 13 years of age. The total group is broken down into specific age groups for weight comparisons. One of the reasons the problem has reached such serious proportions is because it can take years for the problem to actually develop.
In other words, the teenager is obese as the result of years of poor childhood nutrition and not getting enough exercise. If the poor childhood eating habits continue during the teenage years the problem is exacerbated. OBESITY MANAGEMENT The main treatment for obesity consists of dieting and physical exercise. Diet programs may produce weight loss over the short term, but maintaining this weight loss is frequently difficult and often requires making exercise and a lower calorie diet a permanent part of a person’s lifestyle.
Success rates of long-term weight loss maintenance with lifestyle changes are low ranging from 2 to 20%.  Dietary and lifestyle changes are effective in limiting excessive weight gain in pregnancy and improve outcomes for both the mother and the child.  Studies have found significant benefits in mortality in certain populations from weight loss. In a prospective study of obese women with weight related diseases, intentional weight loss of any amount was associated with a 20% reduction in mortality.
In obese women without obesity related illnesses a weight loss of greater than 9 kg (20 lb) was associated with a 25% reduction in mortality.  A 2007 review concluded that certain subgroups such as those with type 2 diabetes and women show long term benefits in all cause mortality, while outcomes for men do not seem to be improved with weight loss.  A subsequent study has found benefits in mortality from intentional weight loss in those who have severe obesity.  SPORTS INJURIES Sports injuries are injuries that occur in athletic activities.
They can result from acute trauma, or from overuse of a particular body part. Traumatic injuries account for most injuries in contact sports such as Ice Hockey,Association football, rugby league, rugby union,Australian rules football,Gaelic football andAmerican football because of the dynamic and high collision nature of these sports. Collisions with the ground, objects, and other players are common, and unexpected dynamic forces on limbs and joints can cause injury. Traumatic injuries can include: Contusion or bruise – damage to small blood vessels which causes bleeding within the tissues.
Strain – trauma to amuscle due to overstreching and tearing of muscle fibers Sprain – an injury in a joint, caused by theligament being stretched beyond its own capacity Wound – abrasion or puncture of the skin Bone fracture Head injury Spinal cord injury In sports medicine, a catastrophic injury is defined as severe trauma to thehuman head, spine, or brain. Concussions in sport became a major issue in the United States in the 2000s, as evidence connected repeated concussions and subconcussive hits with chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) and increased suicide risk.
It is most pronounced in football, and a related ailment (dementia pugilistica) afflicts boxers, but is also seen in other sports, and in females and adolescents. Overuse and repetitive stress injury problems associated with sports include: Runner’s knee Tennis elbow Tendinosis Some activities have particular risks; see: Bicycle safety Gun safety Sailing ship accidents Skateboarding#Safety Further information: Category:Overuse injuries Injuries are a common occurrence in professional sports and most teams have a staff of athletic trainers and close connections to the medical community.
Many retain team physicians. Controversy has arisen at times when teams have made decisions that could threaten a players long-term health for short term gain. Sports medicine is a branch of medicine that deals withphysical fitness, treatment and prevention of injuriesrelated to sports andexercise. Although most sports teams have employed Team physicians for many years, it is only since the late 20th century that Sport and Exercise Medicine has emerged as a distinct entity in health care.
A warm-up program has been founded to decrease injuries in association football.  Many athletes will partake in HGH Treatment for Athletic Enhancement as a way to prevent injuries. [dubious – discuss] Risk of injury can be reduced by completing an effective warm up consisting of a heart raiser to get your pulse up, followed by sport specific dynamic stretches (stretches whilst moving). To reduce the risk of injury: Plan to have at least 1 day off per week from a particular sport to allow the body to recover. Wear the right gear.
Players should wear appropriate and properly fit protective equipment such as pads (neck, shoulder, elbow, chest, knee, shin), helmets, mouthpieces, face guards, protective cups, and/or eye wear. Young athletes should not assume that protective gear will protect them from performing more dangerous or risky activities. Physical Fitness Physical fitness is a general state ofhealth and well-being or specifically the ability to perform aspects of sports or occupations. Physical fitness is generally achieved through correct nutrition,exercise, hygiene and rest.
It is a set of attributes or characteristics that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity. Before the industrial revolution, fitnesswas the capacity to carry out the day’s activities without undue fatigue. However with automation and changes in lifestylesphysical fitness is now considered a measure of the body’s ability to function efficiently and effectively in work and leisure activities, to be healthy, to resisthypokinetic diseases, and to meet emergency situations.
One of the misconceptions in the sports world is that a sports person gets in shape by just playing or taking part in his/her chosen sport. If a stationary level of performance, consistent ability in executing a few limited skills is your goal, then engaging only in your sport will keep you there. However, if you want the utmost efficiency, consistent improvement, and balanced abilities sportsmen and women must participate in year round conditioning programs. The bottom line in sports conditioning and fitness training is stress, not mental stress, but adaptive body stress.
Sportsmen and women must put their bodies under a certain amount of stress (overload) to increase physical capabilities. The Components of Fitness Basic fitness can be classified in four main components: strength, speed, stamina and flexibility. However, exercise scientists have identified nine components that comprise the definition of fitness (Tancred 1995): Strength – the extent to which muscles can exert force by contracting against resistance (e. g. holding or restraining an object or person) Power – the ability to exert maximum muscular contraction instantly in an explosive burst of movements.
The two components of power are strength and speed. (e. g. jumping or a sprint start) Agility – the ability to perform a series of explosive power movements in rapid succession in opposing directions (e. g. ZigZag running or cutting movements) Balance – the ability to control the body’s position, either stationary (e. g. a handstand) or while moving (e. g. a gymnastics stunt) Flexibility – the ability to achieve an extended range of motion without being impeded by excess tissue, i. e. fat or muscle (e. g. executing a leg split).
Local Muscle Endurance – a single muscle’s ability to perform sustained work (e. g. rowing or cycling) Cardiovascular Endurance – the heart’s ability to deliver blood to working muscles and their ability to use it (e. g. running long distances) Strength Endurance – a muscle’s ability to perform a maximum contraction time after time (e. g. continuous explosive rebounding through an entire basketball game) Co-ordination- the ability to integrate the above listed components so that effective movements are achieved. Of all the nine elements of fitness cardiac respiratory qualities are the most important to develop as they enhance all the other components of the conditioning equation.