flame-retardant applications. Scientist developed various approaches for enhancing

flame-retardant materialsThePU foams have however a disadvantage, which are easily ignitable and highlyflammable, support combustion, and burn quite rapidly. Moreover, combustion of  polyurethane foams produce large quantity ofsmoke and toxic combustion products with high concentration of hydrogen cyanideand carbon monoxide. These two smokes are more harmful than usual combustionproducts.  Obviously, the flammability of PU limited many applications, such as inpackaging, building and construction, and automotive industries. Therefore, anincrease of the flame retarding character of rigid PU foams is an important factorregarding their further applications. Scientist developed various approaches for enhancing the fire retardancyof polyurethane foams such as incorporation of fire-retardant additives, such as phosphorus-containing compounds, halogen-containing compounds,nitrogen-containing additives, silicone-containing products, and nanofillers orcoating of PU surface using fire-retardant materials.But sometimes flame-retardant additives reducedother physical properties of foams. A review by Singh et al 17 addressed the ignition, combustion, smoke, toxicity, and fire-retardantperformance of flexible and rigid polyurethane foams in detail.

Raveyet al 18 reported a flexible polyurethane foam fire-retarded with 7.8%tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDCPP), the author analysed why Thisfire-retardant have lesseffective as fire retardants for polyurethanes than they are for many othersubstratesStapletoneial. 19 analyzed 101 commonly PU foam used baby products. Eighty samplescontained an identifiable flame retardant, mostly was chlorinated orbrominated.Themost common flame retardant detected was tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate(TDCPP), followed by components typically found in the Firemaster550 commercialmixture. Five samples contained PBDE congeners commonly associated withPentaBDE, suggesting products with Penta BDE are still in-use.

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