From the Old kingdom
the ancient Egyptian craftsmen knew and practiced the hollow casting technique
to produce the metal figures and tools. In this early time, all early
lost-wax castings were inserted spouts in some Old Kingdom ewers which date back
at least as far as the Fourth Dynasty iiiiii.
Nofal and Waly iv
pointed these examples are represent as initial stage towards to the production
of true hollow-casting objects.
the Middle Kingdom the fine figural copper-tin alloys hollow castings had
appeared, the fabulous Fayum find that included the Louvre statuette v:211-13
and the Ortiz collection statuettes vi: cat.
nos. 33-7. These skillful hollow-cast statuettes illustrated use the
multi-parts technique and assembly methods used even as early as the Middle
Kingdom. The most famous examples are located in Louvre Museum, the standing male
figure which has slotted-in its arms and lower legs. Also, the large Ortiz
figure of the king Amenemhat III that has a separate wig and arms which held in
its place by vertical slotted grooves which former casted in the figure.
The next time, the Second Intermediate period and
the early New Kingdom, most copper and copper alloys statuettes manufactured to
be solid cast by the start of. Brooklyn depicting a royal princess squatting,
nursing mother is example of the Second Intermediate Period casting statues.
This is a consummate solid casting example, one-piece, with post-casting hand worked
detail and inscription vii.
through the early and mid-New Kingdom time copper alloy casting statues are
very little either solid or hollow viii.
Noteworthy the majority examples for this period are royal, the famous examples
are fine, solid-cast kneeling figure of Thutmose III in magnificent black
bronze with gold inlays, now has been displayed in the Metropolitan Museum of
Art, N. Y. ix; Thutmose
IV (British Museum Collection EA64564) which also represent to be
solid-cast; and the head fragment of Ramesses V (Fitzwilliam
Museum Collection, Cambridge) x.
More detailed fine
hollow castings appeared again in the end of the Eighteenth Dynasty, a black
bronze kneeling statue of Tutankhamun now in the University of Pennsylvania museum,
Philadelphia represent as a witnessed for this dynasty xi.
period, copper alloy sculptures began to become slightly more common. There are
three fine examples in the collections of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, N.Y.
One is, a kneeling figure, perhaps solid-cast; the second is a standing figure
of a shaven headed priest and a late New Kingdom, hollow-cast small head with
inlaid eyes xii. In
addition, a fragmentary, thick-walled, hollow-cast figure illustrated by
Garland bears the cartouche of Rameses IV 12.
In the Late Period one-piece casting figures were more
often used, because in this period the heavily leaded alloys are popular that
characterized by highly fluidity and so permitted more complex shapes to be
cast in one piece. When separate components in the statue were required – most
often arms or legs – one or both being cast separately then joined with the
body, depending on size and pose. In reality an over-life-size head of a
pharaoh (now in Hildesheim) which dated to almost Twenty-ninth- or Thirtieth Dynasty
is a certainly piece and a rare example of near-monumental hollow casting xiii.
Lost-wax casting continued through the Graeco-Roman times and became the major
technique for producing bronze statuary. During these rich times, the
lost-wax casting of bronze was achieved by three different ways: solid lost-wax
casting, hollow lost-wax casting either direct or indirect process. Since,
most of deities
figures were cast for personal devotion and votive temple
offerings. Bronze mirror with handle in the shape of a nude female from
the collection of Ägyptisches Museum, Berlin SMPK 13187 is an interesting example
of solid lost-wax process xiv.
i Garland, Hand Bannister,
C.O. 1927. Ancient Egyptian Metallurgy. London: Griffin.
ii Lucas, A. 1962. Ancient
Egyptian Materials and Industries. 4th edn., rev. J.R. Harris. London: Edward
iii Schorsch, D. 1992.
Copper ewers of Early Dynastic and Old Kingdom Egypt-an investigation of the
art of smithing in antiquity, M DAI K, 48: 45-159·
iv Nofal, A.A. and Waly,
M.A. 1998. Foundry technology of ancient Egypt. In Proceedings of the First
International Conference on Ancient Egyptian Mining and Metallurgy and
Conservation of Metallic Artifacts. (10-12 April1995) (ed. F. A. Esmael). Cairo:
SCA, pp. 175-82.
v Delange, E. 1987.
Catalogue des statues Egyptiennes du Moyen Empire. Paris: Musee du Louvre.
vi Ortiz, G. 1994. In
Pursuit of the Absolute: Art of the Ancient World. London: Royal Academy.
viiJ. Ogden, Metals, in: P.T. Nicholson, I. Shaw (Eds.),
Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology, Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, 2000, pp. 148-176.
viii Vassilika, E. 1997.
Egyptian bronze sculpture before the Late Period. Chief of Seers, Egyptian
Studies in Memory of Cyril Aldred (eds. E. Goring, C.N. Reeves and J. Ruffle).
london: KPI, pp. 291-302.
ix Hill, M. 1995. Statuette
of Tuthmose III. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, 53/2: 6.
x Aldred, G. Egyptian
Art in the Days of the Pharaohs 3100 – 320 BC. London: Thames and Hudson.
xi Fishman, B. and Fleming,
S.J. 1980. A bronze figure of Tutankhamun: technical studies. Archaeometry, 22
(r) : 81-6.
xii Hayes, W.C. 1959. The
Scepter of Egypt II: The Hyksos Period and the New Kingdom (1675-1080 BC). New
xiii Eggebrecht, A. 1993-
Mogen sie einen Erinnerung sein ffu die Nachwelt. In Roemer- und
Pelizaeus-Museum (ed. A. Eggebrecht). Mainz: von Zabern, pp. 50-91.
xiv Scheel, B. (1989), Egyptian Metalworking and Tools,