In this context, a contribution is given to the approaches of researches that seek to find ways of gaining access to and devising automated yester for machine analysis of these social signals. To fulfill this need, this paper brakes down gestures and postures both descriptively and analytically and ultimately paves the way for future research. Between the individuals, their stance, their role in the conversation (speaker/listener) as well as the level and type of commitment to the ongoing communication, etc.Additionally, we can go a step further and notice that there seem to be two social interactions, one between two people and one between three people, whereby each individual could be characterized by their gesticulation and their expression of distinctive gestures and sutures. A central part of social intelligence depicted through social interactions plays the understanding of nonverbal interpersonal communication such as social signals and social behaviors In the aspect of computing, there arises the necessity to analyze and make use of social signals as part of human intelligence .This becomes therefore the axle of research of Social Signal Processing as illustrated in the figure below. Even though it might be easy for a human to infer the underlying story from the situation in figure 1, it becomes clear fast that these pieces of information are not ally revealed from the figure itself, but instead are a result of our deduction and understanding of social interactions in general and social signals in particular. It is evident that the five individuals from the figure above are amid relatively unique processes of communication.
This can be noticed by comparing and contrasting for instance the direction of the individual faces, the direction the bodies are facing, the distance *This paper is a deliverable of the Masc. research seminar on “Social Signal Processing (SSP seminar 2012)”, organized in 2012 in the department of Informatics of he University of Fibrous by Fabian Ringer’s and Denis Leaned: HTTPS://dif. Unify.
Chi/ main/diva/teaching/seminars/sociological-processing-SSP-seminar-2012.Figure 1: Gestures and Postures The finger in front of the mouth could be understood as a sign of attentiveness, pensiveness and interest in the female speaker standing in front of him in the left-hand side of the image. We can also notice that her legs are crossed and her hands point towards the male listener, who has taken an upright standing posture.
There seems to be more action going on in the other conversation as we notice by the involvement of the hands of both the man on the left and the woman en- aged in the discussion.The body of the man on the left is noticeably slanted towards the woman, while the man on the right appears to have crossed his hands, probably as a sign of disagreement and reserved body stance. In this paper we attempt to give a contribution to and a synthesis of the discussion about gestures and postures, their types and characteristics in the domain of Social Signal Processing (SSP) (Section 2). Furthermore, we dig deeper into the research area of SSP and based from the fog. 3 we see owe the process from pre-processing data to social interaction analysis in (Section 3).In (Section 4) we provide a summary of gestures and postures applications used in SSP domain.
In conclusion, Section 5 reviews and summarizes the impact of gestures and postures from the point of view of SSP as well as poses the question for further research. Referential/Pointing Gestures: In this category fall gestures resulting from the act of hinting or pointing at people, objects, directions or spatial-environmental references usually with the use of fingers, hands or other means of aimed motion . 2 Postures Among the numerous manifestations of social signals, a particularly interesting part in Social Signal Processing takes the behavioral cues related to postures of people in conversational social situations.
Considering that most social signals can be thought of as being conscious and unconscious, posture is typically expressed unconsciously and thus considered a reliable source of nonverbal information about the state of individuals These signals are generally read from the body stance and body shape, body parts such as arms, legs and torso, weight transfer, chest and head position, etc.Any change of hose accounts for a change in posture . In spite of research done in this area, capturing and handling of such changes via machine recognition still remains open to further research in the context of SSP. Gestures Non-verbal communication is made up of many components.
One of them is gesture. Gestures can be done with the head; shoulders or other body parts but in particular include movements of hands and arms. Gestures are used in many cases like to regulate interactions or to communicate a specifying meaning etc.
.In the point of view of technology, gestures are a hot topic research to replace keyboards and mice with hand events . Since gestures can be the result of conscious and unconscious state, for the purpose of SSP we focus on the unconscious actual state of people because they offer reliable information as in the case of adaptors such as self-touching or manipulation of objects which express boredom and negative attitude towards others The work in , gestures are classified in five main categories. Irrelevant/Manipulative Gestures: Gestures in this category usually are not communicative or socially interactive .
They are merely a result of changes of body movement such as the movements of arms and hands during running r walking. According to one differentiates between three categories of posture. The openness of the body to others makes up the first category, whereby there is an obvious distinction between inclusive and non-inclusive postures. Any of the two individuals in the left-hand side of figure 1 express the former, while the person on the very far right of the figure is an example of the latter type of posture.
Further on, there is a difference in postures where a person’s body is facing another, face-to-face body orientation, as compared to a parallel body orientation, where a person’s body is in line beside another person’s body. In conversational situations between people deeply engaged in the subject at matter one usually observes a face-to-face body orientation, while the parallel body orientation is more typical in conversations between friends or people showing fewer amounts of attention to each other.Side Effect of Expressive Behavior: In the context of a social interaction in general, there appear gestures from hands and arms, which serve the purpose of enforcing the communicated idea along with changes in voice and accentuation during speech .
Symbolic Gestures: These kinds of gestures are conventional signals in uncommunicative interactions. Symbolic gestures generally are used to indicate a clear interpretation.Examples of symbolic gestures are results of waiving down the hand for a taxi, waving the hand to “say’ ‘hello’ or ‘goodbye’ . International Gestures: Gestures of this type are characteristic in situations where a person conveys the message of invitation, initiation and conclusion as well as calling for either individual or Joint action during communication. The importance of these gestures is their intermediary nature and not their communicative or referential role such as in the case of a nod as a sign of confirmation.