Hand be needed for the process. The material

Hand shears are a common way to form materials. Hand shears is a manual way in cutting material stock into smaller pieces before assembling into a fabricated structure.

Hand Shears are used for cutting thin pieces of metal. Pieces of metal can be bent in a vice. A hammer will be needed for the process.

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The material will be clamped in a vice and be marked where it is going to be bent from. A piece of wood placed next to the metal piece can be used to prevent the metal getting spoilt whilst hitting it with a hammer. Bending and forming by machineBending can be done on a machine called a press brake.

The press brake can be functioned manually or automatically. It is used for commonly bending long sheet metals. When bending a piece of sheet metal, it will increase the strength of the metal. This forming process involves the lower press end that contains the die and the upper press which contains a punch which will then force the stock sheet metal to bend whilst pushed into the die. Plasma Cutting can also cut metal. This process is very accurate and cuts material quickly with minimal dirt to clean.

They are very beneficial when cutting straight long cuts.  Automated Methods: When designing sheet metal stock whilst bending or folding a flat pattern or blank development is advised to be created. This blank is then either CNC punch pressed machine or by a laser cutter. A CNC punch pressed machine is used as an automated method for forming by shaping and putting the metal to size when the pressure is forced to the die whilst the material is secure. A CNC punch press is used to punch many various shapes. It is very precise and can form a piece of metal instantly.

Firstly, the stock material is placed between the punch and the die which is inside the punch press. Underneath the stock sheet metal which lies the die, has a shape which will be formed. Mainly Punches and dies are used to create standard shapes, but other tooling can also be made for the punching process. The CNC punch press forces the punch at typical high speeds downwards going straight through the sheet metal and into the die below it.

A small clearance occurs through the die and the punch making the material swiftly bend.CNC Laser cutter: this process occurs when the light of the laser which is moved by a lens assembly is carried over the metal. Nitrogen, oxygen or air is involved in this process. One of these elements are tied together with the laser beam. The piece of metal is then warmed up and then the laser beam is burnt, cutting the stock material.   P5: We have two plates that we are going to bolt together. Assembly processes such as riveting can be used.

Riveting is a process that is used to join metal parts together. When rivets are joined together it is very hard to remove them, it requires the head to be broken. Furthermore, riveting machines can be used whilst drilling holes and  There are two types of them: hot riveting and cold riveting.Hot riveting: is the process in which it uses heat and pressure to produce a fastener. The material being created becomes ductile and halts under pressure which is then applied to the power head. Hot riveting is used for mostly steel that have a diameter of 10mm or above.

 Hot rivet is a permeant fix and very dangerous to carry out therefore skilled people are required to hot rivet because it takes time and accuracy. Also, it is expensive and takes a lot of energy to carry out.Cold rivets also costs money. Cold riveting is the process in which no heating process is involved but the rivet holds the two pieces of metal with much more force than the hot rivet.Parts can be joined together by bolts. Bolts can be a temporary or a permanent fix when bolting together steel structures. Nuts and bolts allows clearance. Bolting is easy and quick to do as well as assembling them and dissembling them with a small amount of effort.

 High tensile bolts are used to tighten the bolts to its maximum shear strength, so no slip will occur. Whilst using high tensile bolts it can function properly when using it as well as not breaking under pressure. MIG welding is a process which is used to join long or short metals pieces together without the need to stop. When MIG welding the rods don’t have to be changed and it doesn’t run out as quick. MIG welding is a good asset as the visibility of the weld pool can be seen, this will produce better welds. It is beneficial to us as it is clean and efficient with no slag which produces a protective shield around the weld pool but with stick welding slag is certain which will be a waste of time and money. Stick welding is a slow method which uses a stick which runs out very quickly however it is more flexible and doesn’t need gas. On the other hand, stick welding is slower because you need to keep and reloading the gun and it takes a lot of time to remove the slag that is formed during the weld, so you will have to start again.

MIG welding is a quicker process but it creates more spatter. Although it doesn’t require skilled people to carry out this process, the person using this method will need to make sure they fully equipped because of high heat pressure and light generation. It costs more than stick with all the welding equipment which increases the cost such as shielding gas, replacement tips, nozzles which can add up. Stick welding requires an experienced person to carry out because of its complex process.

However, it costs much less as the shielding gas is not needed. Similarly, to MIG welding, stick welding does cause spatter and could lead the job having rough surfaces. Task 2: M1:Using incorrect equipment and processes and cutting corners to produce a fabricated structure will have a negative impact on the structure and will lead to large costs adding up.  Firstly, you will have to check the tool and equipment are right for the job.  Faulty equipment that has defects and have not been calibrated to their standards will make the job you are producing not meeting its required specification which will lead to mistakes, time and money adding up. Therefore, the employer as well as the employee need to make sure what they are using is in good working order and suitable to use.

For example, the right tooling will ensure you don’t cause any damage to the work surfaces and equipment. Also, it will guarantee that less effort is needed to complete the job. Each tool is designed for a specific purpose. For instance, drill bits to a drilling machine will be of different sizes and shapes. Using it on wrong components may have effect on the tool as well as the job. So, any tool that is misused in the wrong manner is dangerous and inappropriate.

Protecting your safety and reducing the chance of injury can be done just by using the proper tooling for the job. Tool are very expensive to buy and tools that could last couple of years may not even last a month because of incorrect procedures or not using it for the right intended purpose. If you are just careless or trying to save time, mistreating the job because of the tool is a mistake and should be taken into consideration.Inspecting is key when checking for errors in tooling. There are many hand tools in the fabrication industry and if the equipment has any blunt edges the workers producing the component will have a difficult time in producing it.When using any tool an employee must read full instructions and learn how to use it in the proper manner. Health and safety is vital whilst using tools, as well as equipment and whilst manufacturing. The correct PPE must be worn whilst handling with tooling whether or not you using it.

This is safe for yourself and will reduce the chance of injury. To conclude correct tools must be used in whatever circumstance. Injuring you and others around you is likely when using it for the wrong intention. It is important to check before hand because not checking can lead to consequences and costs adding up.

 Task 3M2: The portal frame is made from mild steel which is itself a strong and ductile piece of metal. It is a piece of material that is simple to work with as well as its cost and it is used a lot in the engineering industry.  We could have bolted together the portal frame by another way for example drilling them together, thread it and tapped a hole. We never tapped a hole because it would have taken time as well as money. Furthermore, we are not threading the frame as it takes time and it also must be very accurate.

Clearance holes allows a bit of clearance room such as 0.5mm of a clearance. Also, we could have used a rivet.

Rivet is a forgiving process and when the parts are joined together you cannot undo them. Hot riveting is the process in which it uses heat and pressure to produce a fastener. The material being created becomes ductile and halts under pressure which is then applied to the power head. Hot riveting is used for mostly steel that have a diameter of 10mm or above. These red-hot rivets are a permeant fix and very dangerous to carry out therefore skilled people are required to hot rivet because it takes time and accuracy. Also, it is expensive and takes a lot of energy to carry out.

Cold rivets also costs money. Cold riveting is the process in which no heating process is involved but the rivet holds the two pieces of metal with much more force than the hot rivet. Although cold riveting is not going to burn you, but may be a permanent weld. Pop riveting is a process in which small pieces of metal are joined together by only side of the work. Although in this process the joint doesn’t need to be strong, this process takes a long time and must be drilled together accurately to achieve its best result.At first, we aren’t good at these steps e.g.

marking out, bending, welding and riveting. If using these methods, it is important to learn these skills and carry them out in the future.Also, this process needs a skilled person to take out this action as well as money and time.

Before tacking up make sure the frame is filed and accurate within its tolerance, this will improve quality as well as skills. Whilst tacking up we used a welder and a jig to hold the work pieces in the correct position because whilst doing it free hand it wont keep the workpieces in position and it will fail with the accuracy