Having inherited inherent in the biological directionthe recognition of an innate tendency to criminal behavior, psychologicaltheories attach greater importance to the conditions of the upbringing of theindividual, while recognizing at the same time a decisive role behind thepeculiarities of her mental state. Psychodynamic theories try to explain the consciousand unconscious factors that help develop our personality and behavior (Ziegler, 2014).
Sigmund Freud believed that personality development wasa result of unconscious factors that are out of our control (Ziegler, 2014). Freud proposed apsychodynamic theory of personality called the “Mental Iceberg”, which is ametaphor for the composition of the mind. It is composed of three components:id, ego, and superego (Ziegler, 2014). Id: resides in the deepest part of the unconsciousmind, governed by pleasure (Ziegler, 2014). Superego: counteracts the id, by maintaining the rulesof society, parents, and teachers (Ziegler,2014).
The superego is composed of two parts: the conscience and ego ideal. · Conscience: distinguish between right andwrong· ego ideal: recognize accomplishmentsEgo: resides in the conscious mind, it is the mediator,balances the urges of the id and the needs of the superego (Ziegler, 2014) Freud’s psychodynamic theory of personality structureis metaphorically compared to that of a mental iceberg. A small portion of thepersonality representing conscious awareness is above the surface; thesubconscious and the unconscious remain concealed beyond awareness (Ziegler, 2014).
If these components are correctly balanced, a personleads a normal life. If one of the components of the personality becomesdominant at the expense of others, a person exhibits neurotic or even psychoticproperties of character (Figure 1). Figure 1 — Freud’s psychodynamic theory Psychoanalytic theory suggests that an imbalance inthe personality, caused by trauma in early childhood, can give a damagedpersonality in adulthood, that is, a person with long-term mental problems. For example, if the parents neglecting the upbringingof the child do not develop the child’s Superego appropriately, “Id”can become the dominant force of the person. Later, a teenager may demandimmediate satisfaction of his desires, he may lack compassion for others,receptivity to their problems, and he may suffer from an inability to controlfeelings, may act impulsively and aggressively, or exhibit other psychoticsymptoms. As a result, criminal behavior can become an outletfor aggressive and antisocial feelings. Thus, for the explanation of antisocialbehavior Freudian thought concentrates on traumas on the early stages ofdevelopment and the resulting misbalance in the personality. In accordance with the psychoanalytic concept, peoplewho experience feelings of psychological pain and are afraid of losingself-control are called neurotic, since they suffer from neurosis.
There are peoplewho completely lost control. Their behavior can be noted by strange episodes,hallucinations, and inadequate reactions. Psychosis takes many different forms, and the mostfrequent is schizophrenia, a condition marked by logical thought processes anda lack of understanding of one’s own behavior. According to the psychoanalyticview, the most serious types of adolescent antisocial behavior, such as murder,can be motivated by psychosis, while the neurotic state will be responsible forless serious offenses, such as petty thefts and absenteeism. Levinson’s theory emphasizes that an individual’s viewof life at a particular time is highly influenced by social and physicalenvironment, as well as religion, race, and status (Daniel Levinson). Some modern psychoanalysts have used Freud’s model toexplain the beginning of antisocial behavior. Erik Erikson believed that manyteenagers experience a life crisis, during which they feel emotionally high,they are too impulsive and are not sure of their role and purpose. To solvethis crisis, most adolescents tend to gain a firm understanding of who they areand what they are for (Erik H.
Erikson). However, some of them cannot adequately handle thestate of the role conflict and experience role-based diffusion (a feeling ofinsecurity that makes them receptive to negative sentences), leaving them tothe mercy of those who can knock them out of the way. The role of diffusion is prompted by the crisis ofidentity-the period of internal disorder, during which adolescents evaluatetheir internal values and make decisions about roles in life.
Using theErickson approach, we can consider the behavior of adolescent drug addicts asan expression of their lack of understanding of their place in society, theirinability to behave towards useful “exits”, and, possibly, their dependence onsolutions offered by others. The psychoanalytic approach pays serious attention tothe role of the family in the upbringing of a juvenile offender. When parents cannot maintain a stable, balanced familylife, a child can come to destructive behavior. Not all psychologists agreethat people’s behavior is controlled by unconscious mental processes determinedby the attitude of parents in early childhood. Behavioral psychologists object,in their opinion, the personality is cognized in the course of life by itsinteraction with others.